This study was conducted to reveal the commonalities and differences between the effects of attachment anxiety and narcissism on adjustment. Therefore, the hypothetical models in which both attachment anxiety and narcissism affect intrapersonal and interpersonal adjustment through senses of acceptance and rejection by other people and partners were examined. Participants were 580 undergraduates in Study 1 and 582 couples aged between their twenties and their fifties in Study 2. The results showed that both attachment anxiety and narcissism increased aggression toward other people and partners as low interpersonal adjustment, and these effects toward aggression were mediated by senses of acceptance by other people and partners. In addition, attachment anxiety increased depression as low intrapersonal adjustment, but narcissism inhibited depression, and these effects were mediated by senses of acceptance by other people and partners.
This study investigated factors leading to normative behavior, focusing on residential mobility and reputation estimation. As people in societies with high levels of residential mobility have many chances to build new relationships, it is important for them to establish positive reputations and extend their human resources. However, the incentive to develop a positive reputation may vary depending on the needs and abilities of those engaged in relationship-building. We hypothesized that in societies with high levels of residential mobility, only those who need to build and are capable of building new relationships would follow social norms, when they think it will help to earn a positive reputation from others. On the other hand, people in societies with low levels of residential mobility have few opportunities to build new relationships and thus they may try to avoid negative reputations in order to maintain their current relationships. We hypothesized that in societies with low levels of residential mobility, people would overestimate the possibility of acquiring negative reputations when they deviate from social norms, and they would therefore follow the norms to avoid ending up with negative reputations. The hypotheses were supported by our online survey, in which we focused on normative aspects of participation in community activities.
The present study examined how the meta-stereotype information presented by outgroup members affects intergroup attitudes, as well as ingroup members’ perceptions of their group. Participants were given either positive or negative meta-stereotype information, which could be either consistent or inconsistent with their own self-views (ingroup stereotypes). As predicted, those provided with positive meta-stereotype information rated outgroup members favorably. Moreover, they regarded their own group more positively when the positive meta-stereotype information was inconsistent with ingroup stereotypes. On the other hand, participants presented with negative meta-stereotype information regarded the outgroup members unfavorably. This tendency was salient when the meta-stereotype information was incongruent with ingroup stereotypes. Negative meta-stereotypes information, however, did not influence the ingroup members’ perception of their own group. We discussed the impact of meta-stereotype information on intergroup relations, as well as the direction of further research.