This study examined if Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) might differ depending on the outgroup with which one's own group is compared. SDO was divided into two factors: “Group-based dominance” and “Equality.” We predicted that Group-based dominance would be high when one's own is compared with a relatively low status outgroup, whereas Equality would be high when one's own group was compared with a relatively high status outgroup. Furthermore, we predicted that this tendency would be apparent in members whose intragroup status was close to the outgroup. University students participated in an experiment that manipulated intergroup status by changing the outgroup status, and its effect on SDO, as well as intragroup status was examined. Results of Study 1 indicated no effect of intergroup and intragroup status on SDO. However in Study 2, by improving the SDO scale, we obtained results that supported our predictions. That is, Group-based dominance scores of low intragroup status members increased when compared with a low status group, whereas Equality scores of high intragroup status members increased when compared with a high status group.
In this study, hoarding tendencies were defined as the trait through which many possessions were accumulated and could not be discarded because of their subjective meaning. Two internet surveys were conducted. In Study 1, a hoarding tendency scale for non-clinical individuals was developed, with questionnaires sent to 410 participants. In Study 2, animistic thinking was taken up as one of the determinants of hoarding, and the relationship between animistic thinking and hoarding tendencies was investigated. Two hundred and thirty-four participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. The main findings were as follows: (1) The results of factor analysis indicated that the hoarding tendency scale consisted of six factors (28 items), such as “having too many things” and “avoidance of discarding things.” These subscales indicated the common and particular attitudes of hoarders toward their possessions. (2) The hoarding tendency significantly correlated with compulsive buying. This result indicated that the hoarding tendency scale demonstrated sufficient criterion-related validity. (3) Animistic thinking, especially “part of the possessor” and “the anthropomorphication of possessions,” had a significant effect on hoarding tendencies.
This study investigated the effects of reputation-making norms on personal network size. Someone who behaved cooperatively/non-cooperatively toward a “bad” person is denoted as C to B/D to B. Reputation-making norms are then defined by a combination of the assessment of C to B and the assessment of D to B. We hypothesized that (1) those who judge C to B negatively would form smaller personal networks than those who judge C to B positively, and (2) those who judge D to B negatively would form smaller personal networks than those who judge D to B positively. We used scenarios to assess the internalized reputation-making norms as an independent variable and investigated their effects on the size of participants' support networks as a dependent variable. Results indicated that the size of the support networks of participants following a norm which does not permit C to B was smaller than that of participants following a norm which does permit C to B. These findings suggest that using reputation made by norms which do not permit spoiling narrows the size of cooperative relationships.
This study was conducted to examine a model in which the relationships between adult attachment dimensions as beliefs and expectations about self and others and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by social images. A Social Image Scale was developed in a pilot study and Study 1. Participants in Study 2 comprised 571 undergraduates, 590 late-adolescent workers, and 397 early-adult workers. The results showed that there were mean differences on several variables among these three groups. However, correlational analysis revealed that anxiety and avoidance were significantly negatively related to goal-directedness and hopefulness in all three groups. Moreover, the results of a multiple-group analysis of the model revealed that the relationships between anxiety and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by negative social images, and the relationships between avoidance and time perspectives toward the future were mediated by positive and negative social images in the three groups.
Perceptions of death rates from hazards described in terms of their occurrence rates (time) versus the number of persons affected (population) were examined in three experiments. In experiment 1, participants judged the death rates from five anonymous real hazards that were described in terms of time or population, using cognitive, affective, and behavioral scales. They rated the time-related hazards to be significantly more frequent and more fearful. In experiment 2, the hazards were given specific names. Participants rated them on the same scales as those used in experiment 1 and described their impressions in response to 9 pairs of adjectives. Again, hazards described by time were rated more frequent and more fearful. The mean scores of the three factors determined through factor analysis of qualitative responses also differed significantly between time and population. In experiment 3, time- and population-related hazards were judged differently, although numerical values of death rates were controlled for to eliminate the anchoring effect. The psychological reasons for this finding and its practical implications for risk communication were discussed.
Effects of winning versus losing, emotional states, and perceived luck on gambling behavior were experimentally examined among Japanese undergraduates. Participants (21 males and 21 females) performed a Game of Dice Task that consisted of 18 gambling trials. Their emotional states and perceived luck were assessed before the first trial and after every trial. The results indicated that after participants experienced wins, compared to losses, their emotional state became more positive and aroused, and their perceived luck increased. Additionally, their next gambling choice became more cautious after participants experienced losses, compared to wins with cautious gambling. These results suggest that the effects of winning versus losing are significant for understanding the mechanisms of gambling behavior.