This study examined the relationship between Christian religious consciousness (CFC) and subjective well-being for Japanese Christians. Members of the Roman Catholic Church (status of denomination: Believers, n＝58; Leaders, n＝61) and of the A subgroup of the Holiness Church (status of denomination: Believers, n＝646; leaders, n＝102) participated in the research. Based on factor analysis, we developed a scale of CFC that contained three factors: “Christian doctrine-based belief,” “norms of religious activities,” and “relationship with other church members.” Hierarchical multiple regression analysis on CFC and subjective well-being showed that the people who had high “Christian doctrine-based belief” or a high “relationship with other church members” have high subjective well-being, and that they were partially influenced by subjective well-being among denominations. However well-being was not influenced by status of denomination. These results indicate that subjective well-being rests largely on CFC, although a small portion of it rests on the type of denomination.
The purpose of this study is to use the travel photo method (TPM) to reveal the kinds of tourist attractions that cause travelers to be attracted to tourist destinations. In the investigation, we obtained the cooperation of 75 travelers. As a result of analyzing 742 supplied photographs, European and American travelers assessed the attractiveness of Nara through the subjects of temple and shrine architecture, modern architecture, statues of Buddha, and Japanese homes, while Asian tourists did so through subjects such as food and shops, lanterns, and torii (gateways to Shinto shrines). Among the Japanese travelers, the group who had visited many times assessed the attractiveness of Nara through the subjects of stone ruins and flora, while the group who had visited fewer times did so through the subjects of fellow travelers, temple and shrine architecture, and deer. Further, the results showed that travelers’ tourism experiences in Nara can be broadly divided into three types. Based on these, we considered the practical significance of assessments of the attractiveness of tourist destinations using TPM.
The Trolley Problem is a well-known moral dilemma that deals with the morality of saving many people’s lives at the expense of a smaller number of others. A recent cross-cultural study found that, while the morality rating attributed to the action did not differ, there was a cultural difference in participants’ intention to act in a given way. From a socioecological perspective, we propose that this could be due to cross-societal differences in the expected reputation that others would assign to the actor for performing the action, which in turn stems from different levels of relational mobility in the respective social ecology. Supporting our theory, a vignette study with US and Japanese participants showed that 1) while there was no cultural difference in morality ratings, among those who judged the action to be morally correct, the Japanese participants showed less action intention than the American participants; 2) the Japanese participants expected a less positive reputation for their action from others than did the American participants; and 3) the weaker action intention among the Japanese participants was associated with the smaller relational mobility and weaker positive reputation expected for action.
Previous studies have indicated that there is a negative attitude toward the welfare system and its recipients. Media coverage of welfare is considered to be one of the factors behind this attitude. In this research, we conducted a web survey experiment focusing on framing effects, exploring how media coverage of social problems affects people’s ways of perceiving problems. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between media framing and informational positions: whether the article is positive or negative for welfare. Results revealed that the episodic frame focusing on welfare recipients affected the attribution of responsibility to welfare recipients, and this tendency was remarkable in the critical content condition. However, the thematic frame focusing on the welfare system had only a weak influence on the attribution of responsibility to the government, and the difference due to informational positions was also small. Attribution of responsibility affected support for enhancing financial policies. Participants tended to oppose the policies if they attributed causal (onset) responsibility and treatment (offset) responsibility to welfare recipients, and to agree with the policies if they attributed treatment responsibility to the government.