Although it has been said that the Japanese people live in the "age of individuality", there is still a strong tendency to be like the people around them. Therefore, to get a more complete understanding of the Japanese mentality, it is necessary to examine the "being alike" mental orientation in greater detail. The purpose of this study is to address the manner in which such orientation is defined and measured, and what mental or behavioral characteristics become intensified as a result of it. The current literature suggests that there are two phases of such orientation: A "like-others" orientation which is related to a way of life where individuals try to conform to the thinking and behavior of others, and a "leveling" orientation where individuals attempt to treat themselves alike regardless of their effort or ability. Using the data from questionnaires given to approximately 200 undergraduates, oblique factor analysis showed that operational indicators of two types of hypothetical construct were made up, on which further research of mental or behavioral characteristics is based.
Two hundred and ten members of a Japanese new religion. Mahikari, responded to a 6-page questionnaire. First, a factor analysis was performed to identify four dimensions of religiosity: belief, religious behavior, experiences, and the affective bonds of membership. Secondly, factor scores were subjected to ANACOVA to examine the effects of sex, age and the length of membership on each dimension. The results indicated that women had more religious experiences than men, and that people became more active in their religious behavior with age. In addition, youths were more affected than adults, and many late adolescent males had doubts about the teachings. The length of membership in Mahikari, on the other hand, was shown to have a positive effect on behavior.
Forty Moslem foreign graduate students working in Japanese universities as well as their 33 Japanese colleagues responded to a questionnaire. It consisted of 58 items tapping behaviors and attitudes that had been predicted to be shared among the majority of Moslems. Subjects responded if each item is true for them. On the assumption that characteristics of a culture are reflected by widely shared behaviors and attitudes which are so spread in the culture that their existence is seldom recognized consciously, we focused on those behaviors and attitudes that were shared among the majority of Moslems (or Japanese). Behaviors and attitudes shared by the majority of Japanese and seen by Moslems as representing lack of religious belief were clarified. It was also found that after two years there was likely to be a turning point for the Moslems in their adaptation to Japanese society, after which they entered a re-adjustment stage by relying more on Islamic belief as a general principle of their daily lives.
From the past studies which have considered the influence of potential helper's state of mood upon helping behavior, the effects of negative mood are inconsistent, the extent to which the result interpretations can be applied and the interrelation between these interpretations are not clear. The purpose of this study is to explore some factors mediate between negative mood and helping behavior. (1) The result of 10 studies with elementary school children, 49 studies with adults (high-school students and over) were reorganized. The relation between results and 9 factors of study situation were examined. Difference of situation as the cause of negative mood had influenced upon helping behavior. (2) To explore the interrelation between factors in adults, quantification method of the third type was executed, using 10 factors including the result. The result was suggested that the great influence of "cause of mood", "interrelation between helper and help receiver", "social comparison", and "influence of mood on a third person" upon helping behavior. Moreover, interrelation between "cause of mood" and "kind of helping situation" influenced upon helping behavior greatly was seen too.
"Conflict analysis", a kind of meta-game theory, was applied to a conflict which occurred in the development of the Kyoto terminal building. Through a review of relevant newspaper articles and a series of intensive interviews with the players involved (i.e., Kyoto Station Building Development Co., Ltd., Kyoto Buddhism Association, an anti-development citizen's group, and a collection of ordinary citizens), the options available to each player and their preference for possible outcomes were determined. The most plausible solution to the conflict was then predicted in terms of equilibrium solutions. The results show that conflict analysis can be a valuable method for examining the macrostructure of a conflict situation.
The purpose of this research is to examine whether or not people prefer the trigger strategy when given a chance to choose between various kinds of strategies in a social dilemma (SD) situation. The experiment was run as a 4-person iterated SD situation with three conditions. The results show that Ss did not select morefrequently the trigger strategy in either condition. These results are inconsistent with the one found in an ealier study (Watabe, 1992). Changes in experimental design are needed in order to examine possible reasons of this inconsistency.
The effects of apology and the changes of affection under four types of social predicaments were examined by canonical correlation analysis. Subjects were asked to imagine themselves as the harm-doer and the victim in one of four scenarios that were designed with combinations of high and low levels of the harm-doer's responsibility and the victim's damage. The findings were as follows: (1) a small number of apology components were used when the victim's damage was severe; (2) social predicaments were generally unpleasant, because the harm-doer and/or the victim felt aggressive affections (disgust, anger and hatred) in every situation; (3) apologies had positive and negative effects on the affection of the harm-doer and victim according to the difference of social predicaments.