Effect of cutting interval on nutritive value of guineagrass and setaria was investigated, and appropriate cutting interval from the viewpoint of nutritive yield of both species was discussed. Annual mean nitrogen concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility of both species decreased linearly with increasing cutting interval (p<0.05). Nitrogen concentration of all treatments decreased in summer season. Though the seasonal change in in vitro dry matter digestibility was relatively small, increasing cutting interval in summer caused marked decrease in in vitro dry matter digestibility. The significant multiple regressions were obtained with nutritive values (nitrogen concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility) as criterion variables and with cutting interval and climatic conditions (temperature and precipitation) as explanatory variables (p<0.01). Standard partial regression coefficients indicated that cutting interval was the major factor to affect the nutritive value. Total nitrogen yield decreased with increasing cutting interval, although dry matter yield increased with extending cutting interval. Since total digestible dry matter yield was maximized at 30 to 40 days of interval in guineagrass and at 50 days of interval in setaria, an extension of cutting interval above these intervals caused decrease in digestible dry matter yield. From results of this experiment, it is shown that extending cutting interval led to decrease in nutritive value, which was especially marked in summer season. Therefore, appropriate cutting interval in summer season should be within 40 days for maintaining high nutritive value of both species.
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the regional unused bio-resources of Kagoshima that was treated by defibration, expanding and moistening (DEM), and its preservation was evaluated in Experiment 1. In addition, the DEM-treated bamboo (DEMB) was ensiled in a laboratory together with sweet potato shochu distillery byproduct (SDB) and wheat bran (WB), or with polished rice bran (PRB), to examine the fermentative quality and palatability of the silages in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. When the DEMB was stored at room temperature under sealing or unsealing condition, mold occurred within a week, spreading over the surface of DEMB. Fermentative quality of six silages was observed. These include DEMB, DEMB with shochu distillery byproduct (DEMB+SDB), SDB with 5% wheat bran (DEMB+SDB+5WB), SDB with 10% wheat bran (DEMB+SDB+10WB), SDB with 5% polished rice bran (DEMB +SDB+5PRB) and SDB with 10% polished rice bran (DEMB+SDB+10PRB). All the silages except for DEMB showed a lower pH (<4.2) and the pH of the DEMB+SDB+10PRB was the lowest. Both the DEMB+SDB +10WB and DEMB+SDB+10PRB silages contained more than 2% of lactic acid, which were significantly higher than the others (P<0.05). There were little acetic, propionic or butyric acids in all silages. The DEMB+SDB+10PRB silage produced significantly lower NH3-N/TN than the others (P<0.05). The V-SCORE, indicative of good quality silage, got 100 points in the DEMB+SDB +10PRB, which was significantly higher than the others (P<0.05). Goats preferred the DEMB+SDB+10PRB silage to others, followed by DEMB+SDB+10WB, DEMB+SDB, DEMB+SDB+5WB, DEMB +SDB+5PRB, and DEMB. These results indicated that the more polished rice bran or wheat bran present, the more palatable the silages. In conclusion, it is suggested that ensiling DEMB with substrates (SDB and WB or PRB) improves preservation, fermentative quality and palatability. In particular, the DEMB +SDB+10PRB showed excellent fermentative quality and palatability. Thus, DEMB silage is considered to be one of the most promising self-sufficient feeds for ruminants.
Feeding raw sawdust as main roughage to Breeding Japanese Black Cattle is gradually spreading in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. In this study, firstly, the digestibility trial was conducted to examine the nutritional function of sawdust in Japanese Black Cattle and digestibility was measured by the total fecal collection method. Results showed that the sawdust was hardly digested by cattle. Consequently, it was observed that the sawdust functioned only in satisfying Roughage Value Index (RVI). Secondly, another research was conducted to investigate whether the quantity of sawdust can be reduced from 3 kg (quantity of conventional feeding) to 2 kg. Results showed that even though the quantity of sawdust was reduced from 3 kg to 2 kg, RVI was still satisfied enough without any problems about rumen fluid characteristics and blood composition.
This study was conducted to examine the nutritive value of defibration-, expanding-and moistening-treated Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) (DEMB) silages, and to investigate the effect of alternative feeding of the silage on the rumen fermentation and blood constituents of goats. The results obtained were as follows: Six different kinds of silages, i.e. 1) DEMB, 2) 41% DEMB and 59% sweet potato shochu distillery byproduct (SDB) on fresh weight basis (DEMB+SDB), 3) DEMB+SDB with 5% wheat bran (DEMB+SDB+5WB), 4) DEMB+SDB with 10% WB (DEMB+SDB+10WB), 5) DEMB+SDB with 5% polished rice bran (DEMB+SDB +5PRB) and 6) DEMB+SDB with 10% PRB (DEMB+SDB+10PRB) were prepared in a laboratory. The DEMB before ensiling (intact DEMB) contained about 43.0% of TDN. The TDN of the DEMB+SDB, DEMB+SDB+5WB, DEMB+SDB+10WB, DEMB+SDB+5PRB and DEMB+SDB +10PRB tended to be higher than that of the intact DEMB, and both DEMB+SDB +10WB and DEMB+SDB+10PRB had significantly higher TDN content (c. 60%) compared with the intact DEMB. Feeding experiments were conducted to compare the physiological state between the animals fed lucerne hay cubes only and those fed lucerne hay cubes with 30% DEMB+SDB+10PRB (in a TDN basis) based on the previous findings that the fermentative quality and palatability of the DEMB+SDB +10PRB were the most superior. Ruminal pH, VFA composition, and feed intake per metabolic body size were not significantly different between treatments during the experiments, and blood constituents of both treatments were within normal range. Additionally, no special abnormality on growth, digestive disorders and disease were recognized. It was concluded that DEMB ensiled with additives such as SDB, WB or PRB improved its nutritive value, and the feed intake and physiological state of goats were not affected by substituting the silage with DEMB+SDB +10PRB for some of ordinary rations.
The present study was conducted to develop labor-saving and effective techniques for preventing sika deer (Cervus nippon) invasion on the meadow. We investigated the behavioural response of domesticated deer to 4 types of fences with 2-, 3-, or 4-stage electric wires (no electricity) and the effects of electric fences on invasion to the meadow (5 paddocks, including a paddock with an improved fence). (1) The domesticated deer were very cautious when they came across all the electric fences (no electricity) (4-stage wires fixed at a height of 140 cm, 3-stage wires fixed at a height of 100 cm, 3-stage wires fixed at a height of 70 cm, and 2-stage 2 wires fixed at a height of 60 cm), and most of them touched the 60- and 70-cm high wires with their lips. After the exploratory behaviour was obeserved, all the animals passed through the 140-cm high 4-stage wires and the 100-cm high 3-stage wires; half the domesticated deer passed through both the 70-cm high 3-stage wires and the 60-cm high 2-stage wires, while the rest leaped over the wires. (2) On the basis of the results of the route census, it suggested that 4 types of electric fences—4-stage wires at a height of 140 cm, 3-stage wires at a height of 100 cm, 3-stage wires at a height of 70 cm, and 2-stage wires at a height of 90 cm—set around the paddocks were more effective in preventing the sika deer invasion than the 2-stage wires that were placed at a height of 60 cm. Wild deer leaped over both the 60-cm high 2-stage wires at night and invaded the meadow; they also leaped over the 70-cm high 3-stage wires and invaded the meadow. These findings indicated that 3 types of electric fences—4-stage wires at a height of 140 cm, 3-stage wires at a height of 100 cm, and 2-stage wires at a height of 90 cm—were effective in preventing sika deer invasion of the meadow in a livestock farm, but that the latter 2 fences were more cost- and labor-efficient than the former one.
In a previous report, we confirmed in the group fed Tea Manufacturing Residual (TR) two percent with commercial feed of fatting pigs, α-tocopherol content was higher and the backfat thickness was lower in a carcass than that of control group. We examined an effect to give a carcass characteristics and mean quality and immunity of fatting pigs in single feeding with a concrete flat floor, in the second TR which increased the bitterness and a functionality ingredient than the first TR. Sixteen castration pigs of the LWD were divided into four groups; the first TR group, the second TR group, the no antibacterial group and control group. This examination was started average initial body weights of the four groups exceeded 30 kg, and it did the change of the feed from first period feeding to the second period of fatting pigs at the stage that the average weight of them reached the range of 65-75 kg. The pigs were slaughtered when they reached a weight of approximately 110 kg. In the second TR ingredient, that a α-tocopherol and a catechin content were high in comparison with the first TR. In growth results, a meaningful difference was not recognized to quantity of the daily gain. In carcass results, the significant difference was not recognized to carcass weight, but in comparison with the back fat thick (a shoulder) control group, the second TR group became significantly thinnest. As for the α-tocopherol content in a carcass, significant difference was not confirmed in the backfat, but, as for the sirloin, the second TR group was significantly high in comparison with the control group. As for the blood AR antibody titer, significant difference was not confirmed, but, about the IgG density, the second TR group was high in comparison with the no antibacterial group in the 56th day. These results suggested that, and that feeding added of the second TR was improved carcass characteristics, mean quality and tendency of the immunity reinforcement of fatting pigs in comparison with that of the first TR.
This study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical constituents of serum in fattening pigs fed potato mixed silage. Potato mixed silage was prepared to contain 80% of the lysine requirement of the Japanese feeding standard for finishing pigs to produce pork with higher intramuscular fat contents. Two groups were made of 15 pigs in all: 8 pigs were given the potato mixed silage; seven pigs, considered the control group, were given ad libitum access to commercial feed. The biochemical constituents of serum were measured before, 5 wk after, and 10 wk after administration of the diet. The total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values were significantly lower in pigs given potato mixed silage than in control pigs (P<0.01), but these values were in the normal range of biochemical constituents of serum in fattening pigs. No difference was found between the two groups in gamma-glutamil transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), total cholesterol (T-Chol) or high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values. Slaughter inspection revealed that pigs fed potato mixed silage had no internal disease. These results suggest that potato mixed silage, which has less lysine content accumulated in intramuscular fat, imparts little or no health effect on fattening pigs.
We investigated effect of sire on meat production in crossbred between Japanese Black bulls and Holstein cows. First, crossbred steer are different in sire (Itozakura and Tajima) were used for the evaluation of growth performance and carcass characteristics on same feed intake system. Second, we investigated effect of period in the middle of fattening. Experimental results are summarized as follows: The Itozakura strain crossbred carcass weight are bigger than the Tajima strain crossbred's. And so, crossbred meat production are greatly influenced by sire of Japanese Black bulls. Moreover, a two-months extension to period in the middle of fattening in the Tajima strain crossbred brings about just control serum vitamin A. And so, just control serum vitamin A improves beef marbling. This study shows that crossbred meat production are greatly influenced by sire of Japanese Black bulls and crossbred needs suitable feed intake system for each strain.