To clarify the effects of cutting height and interval on stubble, root, and regrowth of palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich.) Stapf) cv. MG5 under a no ear emergence condition, we conducted pot experiments. The four cutting treatments combined two cutting height (10 and 20 cm) and two levels of cutting interval (2 and 4 week) and a control plot without cutting were prepared. The growth rate of more than 5 cm from the ground, aboveground biomass of less than 5 cm from the ground, the underground biomass, and the number of stems were investigated. Results show that, from four weeks after first cutting, the growth rate, the aboveground biomass and the underground biomass of the control showed maximum values. Those of 10 cm and 2 week treatment showed minimum values. A higher cutting height and a longer cutting interval increased the growth rate, the aboveground biomass, and the underground biomass. Decrease of the aboveground biomass and underground biomass of 10 cm and 2 week treatment suggest that palisadegrass is unsuitable for low height and frequent cutting.
The economic impact on harvest and silage contractors of extending the optimum harvest period by combining whole crop silage (WCS) rice varieties with different maturation periods was investigated using on-site case studies and the results of cultivation experiments. It was found that, in cases where public financial support was received when introducing machinery for the first time, for a work fee set at 2,500 yen per round bale, the break-even point for operating the machinery could not be reached if only the very late maturing variety “Tachiaoba” was cultivated, whereas it was estimated that it could be achieved if “Tachiaoba” were cultivated in combination with the early maturing variety “Makimizuho” and the very early maturing variety “Yumeaoba”. Accordingly, using a combination of varieties with different maturation periods was assessed as contributing to the stabilization of contractors’ finances. However, because public financial support cannot be received when updating machinery, in that case the break-even point could not be reached even when using the three-variety combination. In order for the work to be financially viable, we believe that it is necessary to further extend the harvest period by adding WCS barley varieties, and to raise the work fee per unit by the feeding value of rice WCS.
The effects of feeding diets containing cassava meal (tuber and leaf) were investigated on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, weight gain, egg performance, egg quality and digestibility of layer during 4 weeks of feeding experiment. Thirty-six white leghorn layer were allocated into 4 groups of nine hens each. Diet I, contained no cassava meal but maize 57% of the diet and served as control. In diet II, III and IV, the proportion of maize was replaced with the cassava meal at the levels of 50% (40% tuber + 10% leaf), 75% (65% tuber + 10% leaf), and 100% (90% tuber + 10% leaf), respectively. The cassava meal diets tended to reduce dry matter digestibility. The birds were able to tolerate up to 75% of cassava meal (65% tuber + 10% leaf) after which egg production declined. Cassava meal diet did not have significant (p>0.05) dietary effects on the egg quality parameters. However, the trend of yolk color score decreased to the increase of the substitution level of cassava meal. The results demonstrated that maize (57%) in the commercial formula feed could be replaced with cassava meal up to 75% without any adverse effects on the laying performance and egg quality.
To evaluate their composting characteristics, rubbed bamboo powder and sawdust, used as Japanese Black heifer bedding for 3 months, were tested. Both materials were piled to 1 m in a composting depot with concrete walls on three sides and a galvanized iron roof. During the 5-month composting period, the compost piles were turned periodically (every 2 weeks) and an equal amount of water was added to maintain adequate moisture levels. The raw bamboo powder contained significantly higher acid-detergent-soluble organic matter than the raw sawdust material. The inner temperature of both compost piles increased considerably after turning. The peak temperature (50 °C) after turning was obtained during the first 2 months of composting for both materials. Thereafter, the peak temperature lowered in the sawdust compost because of a decrease of easily decomposable organic matter. The bamboo compost maintained a significantly higher pH than the sawdust compost for the last 4 months of the composting period. The volatilization of NH3 was detected for 2 months in the sawdust compost and for 4 months in the bamboo compost after compost initiation. Inorganic nitrogen in the sawdust compost was mainly composed of NO3-N and in the bamboo compost was mainly composed of NH4-N. After composting, a germination test (radish, qing geng cai, spinach and potherb mustard) was conducted using both composts. The germination rate in the bamboo compost was significantly lower than in the sawdust compost for all vegetables. From these results, we suggest that rubbed bamboo powder needs a longer composting period than sawdust.
The proximate contact opportunistically occurs between livestock and wildlife in the agricultural ecosystems demonstrated at Hilly and Mountainous Areas in Japan. However, studies has been concentrated on large and middle sized mammals such as bear, sika deer, wild boar, and Japanese macaque, whereas less for small mammals. I hypothesized that the management on understory in agricultural windbreaks was associated with the spatial distribution and utilization of farmland of small mammals. To test this, the effects of the management on understory in windbreaks on changes in the number of a small mammal living within windbreaks and on utilization of artificial equipments in a farmland by a forest small mammal under the condition mimicking agricultural ecosystems containing small scale livestock farmers demonstrated at semi-mountainous areas in Japan. Five trapping plots and nine trapping transects were settled in windbreaks and peripheral areas on the cornfield neighboring to the windbreaks, respectively, and effects of management on understory in windbreaks on changes in the number of mice captured at these trapping points were analyzed by generalized linear mixed effects model. Only adult large Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus was captured and any other small mammals were not captured in the present study. Sharply decreasing in the number of individual mouse was observed only in the two trapping plots having low population density after understory was removed. In addition, removing understory resulted in decreasing in the number of individual mouse in all trapping transects. These results suggest that the management on understory, which was conducted by farmers as the part of usual maintenances on farmland can effectively decrease the number of mouse living in windbreaks, and, as a result, this can also decrease the frequency of invasion to the neighboring cornfield from windbreaks.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Koji (Aspergillus awamori) and a liquid feed (LF) fermented by A.awamori on performance in growing-finishing pigs. In the first experiment, 18 Kagoshima Berkshire barrows were allotted to control group (standard diet) and two experiment groups (standard diet supplemented with 0.05% or 0.1% of A.awamori) of six pigs each. As a result, body weight gain was increased, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly decreased by 0.05% A.awamori. In the second experiment, 18 cross bred barrows (LW・D) were given a Koji fermented LF made from restaurant residue replaced with the standard diet at the level of 20% or 40%. As a result, body weight gain and FCR were significantly improved by feeding 20% LF diet compared to the standard diet. In the third experiment, similarly to the second experiment, two kind of LF (fermented using A.awamori and two kind of lactic acid bacteria) replaced with the standard diet at the levels of 20% were fed to Kagoshima Berkshire barrows. As a result, body weight gain and FCR were significantly improved by feeding LF fermented with A.awamori and Lactobacillus casei. In conclusion, it was shown that the performance of growing-finishing pigs can be improved and high quality LF with high nutritional value can be made by A.awamori.
This study was conducted to obtain basic information on the development of biological control of Rumex obtusifolius L. by goats. Each of a group of cattle (n = 3) and goats (n = 6) was allocated to one of two paddocks in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture (approx. 1 ha), which was partly invaded by R. obtusifolius. The stocking rate of the two animals was similar, and their grazing behaviours were observed twice over a 40-day grazing period between April and May in 2009. The percentage of R. obtusifolius harvested by grazing animals to the total number of this plant and the herbage mass per unit area in each paddock were determined. In addition, the relative summed dominance ratio (SDR2′) of R. obtusifolius was measured. On the basis of observations of the grazing behaviour of both animals, we calculated the grazing frequency (GF)—the percentage of each plant species to the total number of plant species grazed in each paddock. Moreover, the selectivity index (SI), based on Ivlev’s electivity index, was estimated from SDR2′ and GF for each of all the plant species. The herbage mass of R. obtusifolius was significantly smaller in the goat paddock than in the cattle paddock (P < 0.05). The percentage of R. obtusifolius defoliated by the animals was higher in the former than in the latter throughout the experimental period (P < 0.05). The GF of R. obtusifolius ranged from 0% to 0.6% for cattle and from 11% to 14% for goats. Although the SI values for R. obtusifolius were negative in both cattle and goats, those for the latter were smaller compared with those for the former throughout the grazing period. In conclusion, both cattle and goats are unlikely to prefer R. obtusifolius to other plant species; however, the extent of food aversion was smaller in goats than in cattle. It is accordingly suggested that goats do not show stronger avoidance of R. obtusifolius than cattle.
This research produced tofu lees silage able to be stored for extended periods and investigated
the effects on growth and meat production of feeding tofu lees silage to growing male goats. Tofu lees silage was able to store for long term (high lactate content, no butyrate) and was highly palatable. Twelve goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, 3 months old, BW 22.3 kg) were allocated into two groups (control feed group: CFG, tofu lees silage group: TSG). The CFG was fed formulated feed containing no tofu lees, while the TSG used tofu lees silage containing 20% tofu lees (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in BW). Alfalfa hay cubes were fed twice daily (1.0-2.0 kg/d). Klein grass hay and water were given ad libitum. From 3 to 12 months old, body weight and sizes were measured monthly. The carcass and loin characteristics were also analyzed. TDN and DCP intake in the TSG and CFG were in keeping with the TDN and DCP requirements for growth. However, the growth rates and meat production of the animals in the TSG were significantly higher than the CFG. The results indicate that tofu lees silage feeding improves growth in growing goats and increases meat production.
This study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of casein added to the semen diluents on reductions in sperm cryotolerance caused by seminal plasma (SP) proteins during semen transportation of Okinawan native Agu pig. Semen samples from three Agu pigs were immediately diluted with equal volumes of Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) containing casein sodium at a final concentration of 0.5%, and were transported within 1.5-2 h at 30˚C. Casein treatment during semen transportation had the beneficial effects on post-thaw sperm motility and plasmalemma integrity. Higher levels of cholesterol were retained in fresh sperm treated with casein than in untreated sperm in all pigs (P<0.05). The potential resistance to cell damage from cryoinjury was enhanced in sperm treated with casein during semen transportation in all pigs: caspase activity was markedly lower, and DNA integrity and intracellular ATP content were higher than those in untreated sperm treated. Furthermore, higher sperm penetrability to matured oocytes in vitro was maintained in post-thaw sperm treated with casein. These findings demonstrate that the addition of 0.5% casein to BTS during semen transportation improved the post-thaw qualities of Agu sperm by protecting sperm cryotolerance from the detrimental action of SP proteins prior to the freezing procedure.
Focusing the relationship that decreasing in foraging efficiency and safety of surrounding environments should reduce the foraging behaviors by individual animals, I tested the possibility that controlling the foraging efficiency of the residuals in a field and pruning in agricultural windbreaks might contribute to control the utilization of the environments at the field of maize for the livestock diets. Passer montanus, Corvus macrorhynchos, Corvus corone, Streptopelia orientalis, which enter a feeding tank, and Carduelis sinica, which eat crops frequently immigrated to the field. Giving up time (GUT) was significantly longer in the high quality feeding plot than in the low quality plot. GUT for small bird species but not the larger birds might decrease in plot B than in plot A. This may be dew to that pruning influence warning behavior, one of anti-predatory behaviors, and this impacted small birds than the larger birds. GUT for four days and eight days after the experimentally setting for feeding condition tended to be short when the birds had experienced low quality feeding treatment than when they had experienced high quality one. These results suggest that representing the low quality feeding condition at peripheral areas of a field and pruning in the neighboring windbreaks can reduce foraging behaviors of bird species in a field.
The objective of this study was to develop a fermented TMR technology that utilized forage sugarcane and unused resources. This study examined the effect of mixture rate of bagasse, trash and addition of brown cane sugar shochu distiller grain soluble (BSDG), molasses on the fermentation quality and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of fermented TMR mainly composed of forage sugarcane silage. The mixed trash and bagasse were utilized equal amounts of each, and were combined in a 30%, 40%, and 50% ratio on a dry matter basis in TMR and forage sugarcane silage mixed remainder. The 2% of BSDG, 2% of BSDG and 5% of molasses, 5% of molasses were replaced forage sugarcane silage, respectively. The TMR fermented using a pouch bag in January and June for 3 months each. Each V-score was 90 points or more in January ensiling. In June ensiling, the fermentation quality was not affected by the mixed ratio of trush and baggase. The V-score of control TMR was around 80 points. The V-score of TMR with added BSDG tended to be higher than others. The higher mixed ratio of trush and baggase, IVDMD decreased in both months' ensiling.