This study aimed to examine effects of floor environments on behavior and growth of meat-type chickens as rudimentary information on development of rearing management systems ensuring their welfare. Six broilers and 12 Kumamoto breed were fed individually on sawdust and grass-sod floor environments, respectively, and investigated their feed intake, body weight, behaviour and feather condition. The feed intake of broilers did not significantly differ between both the floor environments, while the feed intake of Kumamoto breed tended to increase until the 7th day after introducing into the sawdust floor environment (P=0.06). There were no significant differences of weight gain and feed conversion ratio between both the floor environments. The most frequent floor pecking of Kumamoto breed occurred on the 7th day after introducing into the grass-sod floor environment (P<0.05). However, the time spent floor pecking did not differ for the broilers between both the environments. The feather of broilers fed in the grass-sod floor environment had the severest damage (P<0.05), while there were almost no stains on the feather of Kumamoto breed. These results suggest that the grass-sod floor environment is a factor improving the welfare level for Kumamoto breed but not for broilers.
The current state of manure treatment and utilization in the Korean cattle industry was investigated to determine how best to bring about improvement. A questionnaire as well as an onsite interview of 160 beef cattle farms was administered in Korea's City X in Chungcheongbuk-do province. Next, for farms with 8 to 75 head of breeding cattle, different types of composting were identified with a focus on the differences between the methods of manure treatment and the methods of utilization. Through this study three different methods of dealing with manure were identified. Type A, in which at least 50% of the manure is self-use which lowers feeding and labor costs. Type B, in which at least 50% of the manure is either sold or given away, was found to still warrant the cost of collection as well as reduce the workload of the manual harvesters, which helped to both decrease the cost of subsidiary materials and promote compost sales. Type C was when neither method was practiced enough for it to fit into either previous type. Several challenges were identified. For example, there is a lack of treatment facilities for type C composting, and there is a growing need for manure processing machinery and facilities. An attractive approach to meeting these challenges is constructing co-composting facilities.
The study was conducted in order to how bull of Miyazaki influenced cow's carcass traits. The annual trend of the inbreeding coefficient did not have the difference in Kitamorokata and Koyu. Inbreeding of maternal grandsire changed in a high level compare with that of bull. The genetic trend of predicted breeding value did not show the difference in Kitamorokata and Koyu. The trend of SFT was decreased, the other were increased. It showed that lineage of bull and maternal grandsire influences the trend of predicted breeding value.
Recently, the calving interval is not so improved though the growth of Japanese Black cow. This study was conducted in order to how genetic trends and improvement of carcass traits and calving interval in Japanese Black cow. Heritability of carcass traits measured by ultrasonic diagnosis was a low value. However, the annual trends of breeding value rose. Heritability of calving interval was an extremely low value. However, the variation between individuals was admitted by the value of genetic variance. Breeding value of calving interval has risen every year. It has been improved performance and carcass traits in Japanese Black, from now on, it needs the improvement of cow's ability, calving interval etc, to keep steady Japanese Beef production.
The cytoskeletal protein talin acts as an essential link between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton in costameres. Some studies have reported that talin may contribute to the water-holding capacity of aged meat. Talin has two isoforms, talin1 (T1) and talin2 (T2), but their respective biological roles are not fully understood. Furthermore, the specific roles of T1 and T2 in determining meat quality are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression of T1 and T2 in the pectoralis major, biceps femoris, gizzard, and heart in chickens. Additionally, we examined the postmortem changes in talin in the biceps femoris. Expression of T1 mRNA was significantly higher while that of T2 was significantly lower in the gizzard than in the pectoralis major (P < 0.01). Expression of T1 in the gizzard was also signifi cantly higher than in the biceps femoris and heart (P < 0.01). In western blotting using 8d4, anti-talin2 or TA205 antibody, only anti-talin2 could detect talin in the pectoralis major and biceps femoris. Microscopy also showed that talin labeled by anti-talin2, but not 8d4 was located around muscle fibers in the biceps femoris. Furthermore, intact talin band labeled by anti-talin2 within chicken biceps femoris muscle was rapidly diminished during postmortem storage. Our findings propose that the degradation of T2, but not T1, in chicken skeletal muscle may influence the quality of chicken meat.
We investigated the performance and meat quality of Japanese Brown (Kumamoto) (JB-K, n=3, 8-9 months of age, 311±4 kg of body weight) steers that were raised and fattened by using year-round outdoor grazing and self-suffi cient feed supplies such as corn silage. The steers were grazed year-round outdoors on pasture, predominantly Italian ryegrass in the winter season and bahiagrass in summer without commercial formula feeds. Pasture feeding consisted of two stages, the pasture-rearing and pasture-fattening periods. The daily weight grain (DWG) of steers was 0.40±0.13 kg in pasture-rearing period of 287 days and 1.42±0.35 kg in pasture-fattening period of 164 days, respectively (total DWG: 0.82±0.08 kg, 451 days). Steers grazing in a pasture also consumed corn silage from 19.7±0.6 months of age, and they were slaughtered at 650±22 kg of body weight and 24.7±0.6 months of age. The carcass grades for pasture-fed steers were A-2 (n=1) and B-2 (n=2). Meat quality of M. semitendinosus was compared between pasture-fed and formula feed-fed steers (n=3, 680±54 kg of slaughter body weight, 24.5±0.4 months of age). Pasture-fed steers contained lower (P<0.05) lipid contents and higher (P<0.01) β-carotene content than formula feed-fed ones. We assessed shear-force, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and eating-quality characteristic using taste sensor. There were no differences between two groups in those items during chilled storage. However, both groups showed a significant decrease in shear-force (P<0.05) and increase in ORAC (P<0.05) during chilled storage. In both groups, four measured values (i.e. sourness A, umami, drug like bitterness and bitter like bitterness as aftertaste) of the taste sensor were increased (P<0.05), and among other items harsh taste, sweet taste and ‘koku’ were decreased (P<0.05) during chilled storage. These results indicated that there were no differences in muscle hardness, antioxidant capacity and taste between pasture-fed and formula feed-fed JB-K steers with the exception of β-carotene content.
Thirteen tropical grasses were evaluated for seasonal and annual dry matter productivity. The field experiment was conducted for three years at Iriomote island, Okinawa, Japan (24°24'N, 123°48'E). The same management practices were applied for all genotypes in every season. Crop growth rate (CGR) of all genotypes increased in spring and summer season, and CGR of winter fell to 39% on the average in summer season. The CGR values of Brachiaria and Setaria genotypes were higher than other grasses from spring to autumn seasons. The CGR values of the leading three genotypes in the local cultivation (Chloris gayana Kunth cv. Katambora, Cynodon nelmfuensis Vanderyst, and Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Gatton) were comparatively high in winter season. Annual mean CGR was highly correlated with CGR in spring and summer seasons. In the second year when there was little precipitation in summer the growth of two Chloris genotypes deteriorated markably. Chloris genotypes were most vulnerable to drought among the 13 grasses. Although C. gayana Kunth cv. Katambora has the largest cultivation area in Okinawa Prefecture, the productivity was relatively low among the 13 species. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate dry matter productivity of all genotypes. The first two principal components explained about 85% of total variability. It is concluded that creeping signal grass (Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweich), signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf), purple pigeon grass (Setaria incrassata Hochst) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata var. sericea cv. Kazungula) were superior in growth of warm seasons for 3 years with high annual dry matter production to other genotypes.
Botanical diversity, characteristics of vegetation and biomass were investigated in widely-spreading-type alpine meadow in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau to evaluate the effect of seasonal grazing by yaks. This study was conducted in Yushu Prefecture National Livestock Farm in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous State located in the south of Qinghai province in China. From 28 July to 1 August in 2009, investigations of floristic composition and biomass were conducted with 0.5 m×0.5 m quadrats and line transects in the pastures with grazing only in warm-season or cold-season and resting in the other seasons. Number of plant species was 62 in warm-season-grazing pasture (WSGP) which was greater than 53 in cold-season-grazing one (CSGP). The indices of Shannon-Wiener, Simpson and Pielou were lower in WSGP than those in CSGP. The rate of plant cover and the height of plant community in WSGP were also significantly lower than those in CSGP (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). The aboveground biomass was 42.9 gDM/0.25 m2 in WSGP which was significantly lower than 108.7 gDM/0.25 m2 in CSGP(p<0.001). Dominant species in WSGP were Kobresia parva, Stipa purpurea and Kobresia humilis which were low in plant height and highly tolerant to grazing, and also Leontopodium nanum and Potentilla bifurca which were highly resistant to grazing and trampling. In contrast, those in CSGP were Elymus nutans and Poa tibetica which were high in plant height and Taraxacum mongolicum and Astragalus polycladus which were known to indicate the pasture in good condition for grazing. Indicator plant species to show pasture condition degrading such as Stellera chamejasme and Androsace tapete were abundant in WSGP.
To evaluate the nutritional characteristics of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) from different sources, 3 Holstein dry cows fitted ruminal canula were fed fermented total mixed ration (TMR) containing CDS from rice, barley or sweet-potato (CRDS, CBDS and CSDS, respectively), or basal fermented TMR in 4 experimental periods. Basal fermented TMR (containing 20% oats hay, 20% rice whole crop silage, 10% beet pulp, 29% steam rolled corn, 15% rolled barley, 5% soybean meal, and 1% calcium carbonate, as DM basis) was fed in period 1, and the fermented TMR containing 20% of CRDS, CBDS and CSDS were fed in period 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Each period was consisted of 9-d adaptation and 5-d energy metabolism trial period. Digestible crude protein contents of CRDS, CBDS and CSDS were 37.9, 33.8, and 13.6% DM, respectively, and their total digestible nutrients contents were 81.9, 91.7 and 70.1% DM, respectively. Potassium content in CSDS (6.46% DM) was the highest in CDS. The accuracy of estimated TDN of CDSs by NRC (2001) was similar to that of conventional feed. These results showed that nutritional characteristics of CDS were different with source of the CDS.
Smallholder beef farmers, particularly in isolated islands, were highly aged, holding limited arable lands with poor machinery equipment. Demand for herbage production increases rapidly due to high cost of imported herbage supply. We investigated the adaptability of dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) of late-heading type (dwarf-late, DL) to 12 sites including isolated islands in 3 Prefectures of southern Kyushu by determining soil properties, plant growth characters, herbage yield and quality, and overwintering ability in 2007.2009. The dry matter (DM) yield of DL napiergrass ranged in 0.7-13.6 and 0.2.15.8 Mg/ha/yr in 2007 and 2008, respectively. There were significantly positive correlations between N fertilizer supply and DM yield (r = 0.844, P < 0.01 and r = 0.928; P < 0.001 in 2007 and 2008, respectively). However, not only by the rate of fertilizer application, DM yield was also variable depending on soil fertility and weed control across the examined sites. Herbage quality in leaf blade and stem inclusive of leaf sheath, as assessed by in vitro DM digestibility and crude protein (CP) content, ranged in 56.76% and 6.18%, respectively. In some cases, CP content declined below the critical level as a feed for breeding cows, since the herbage quality in leaf blade had significantly negative correlation with cutting interval (P < 0.05). Results revealed that DL napiergrass should adapt to the examined sites including isolated islands in the established and subsequent years. However, it is necessary to maintain the satisfactory level of herbage yield and quality by the minimum fertilizer application at least more than 100 kg N/ha/yr, and the optimum soil condition, cutting interval and weed control after establishment.
It has been found that shochu distillery by-product (SDBP) originated from sweet potato can improve growth and meat quality of broiler because SDBP contains growth promoter and antioxidants such as polyphenols. In the present study, effects of feeding 1 year- preserved and fresh SDBPs (liquid type, 60% water) on performance and meat quality were examined in broiler chicken. Parameters compared were body weight gain, breast muscle weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma and muscle TBARS, muscle α-tocopherol content and plasma Nτ-methylhistidine (MeHis) concentration. Previously to the animal experiment, chemical compositions of the two SDBPs were compared and found that α-tocopherol concentration was lower and ammonia concentration was higher in the preserved SDBP comparing to the fresh SDBP while there was no difference of polyphenol concentration. In the animal experiments, the body weight gain tended to be increased and FCR tended to be decreased by the fresh SDBP but not by the preserved SDBP. The breast muscle weight tended to be increased by the fresh SDBP and ANOVA showed that the effect of preservation was significant. Plasma TBARS were significantly lowered by both SDBPs and the effect of preservation was significant while muscle TBARS and muscle α-tocopherol content were not affected. Plasma Nτ-MeHis concentration was significantly decreased by SDBP and the effect of preservation was also signifi cant. The present study shows that SDBP loses its growth promoting effect while antioxidant effect remains during a long-term preservation.
This study evaluated growth and fattening performance effects of increased milk replacer feeding during the suckling period. Six Holstein steer calves were assigned alternately to groups with conventional (CON) or increased (IM) milk replacer feeding. During the suckling period, the IM group, fed more milk replacer, showed enhanced daily gain of body weight, withers height, and cannon circumference than the CON group. The gain-to-feed ratio in the IM group was higher during the suckling period and lower during the growing period than in the CON group. During the growing and fattening period, no effect was found on feed intake, body weight, or cannon circumference, although withers height of the IM group was 5 cm higher than that of the CON group at 8 and 12 weeks of age and at 10 months of age. Carcass weight in the IM group at 20 months of age was 35 kg greater than in the CON group, but no statistically signifi cant difference was found. Carcass traits were unaffected by treatment. Results show that increased milk replacer feeding might increase body growth during the suckling period and withers height until the early fattening period, but the fattening performance and carcass traits were unaffected.