The objectives of this study were to determine the growth response of dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) to digested effluent of manure (DEM). Liquid form of DEM (LDEM) produced from biogas-plant and different rates of manure enriched with LDEM (SDEM) were applied to dwarf napiergrass. The plant height, tiller number, leaf area and total dry matter weight (TDMW) significantly increased with the increasing manure application in dwarf napiergrass. This yielding ability was derived from high accumulation of dry matter in root and underground stem part to show lower top to root ratio below 2 in this genotype. Both LDEM and SDEM were so effective in enhancing plant growth as in chemical fertilizer, while the efficiency of total N content to yielding ability was the least in SDEM, followed by LDEM and chemical fertilizer with no-significant difference among treatments in dwarf napiergrass.
Feeding of cedar raw sawdust as main roughage to breeding Japanese Black cattle is gradually spreading in Miyazaki prefecture, Japan. In general, this feeding method has been done by a mixture of sawdust and concentrate. In addition, a small amount of forage usually offers to animals in the afternoon. We investigated the feeding effect of particle size of sawdust on eating and ruminating patterns, Roughage Value Index (RVI), rumen fluid characteristics and blood serum composition. Cattle were given 2 different rations, (1) a mixture of normal size sawdust (without sieving) with concentrate, and a small amount (448 g DM/head) of rhodesgrass hay (control), (2) a mixture of small size sawdust (through a 5 mm sieve) with concentrate, and a small amount (448 g DM/head) of rhodesgrass hay (treatment). Results showed that total rumination time, number of rumination, average ruminating time, elapsed time (from the end of eating time to the beginning of rumination) and RVI were not affected (P>0.05) by the feeding of rations. In rumen fluid characteristics, pH value was more than 6.5 in both control and treatment rations. The protozoa numbers of feeding of both control and treatment rations were lower than the normal level (10-100×104/dl of ruminal fluid). In blood composition, the values of some parameters were not within the standard level, but did not get off remarkably. In conclusion, particle size of sawdust may not be a matter of concern, if animals are introduced to the sawdust with concentrate and a small amount of forage.
We investigated the effects of a diet containing lactic acid-fermented fish byproducts (LFBs) on the fatty acid composition and quality parameters of pork. Pork loin samples were collected from pigs fed a diet containing 49% LFBs, and the characteristics of their meat was compared with that from animals fed conventional or 5% fishmeal diets. The LFB diet did not affect the color of lean meat, drip loss, and the melting point of subcutaneous fat. However, the LFB diet resulted in reduced lipid content and a slightly brown color of pork fat. The concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and the compositions of these fatty acids relative to other fatty acids were significantly increased by LFB feeding (P < 0.01). As a result, the n-6/n-3 ratio of pork lipid in the LFB group was improved relative to the conventional and fishmeal diet groups (P < 0.01). However, enrichment of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in pork deteriorated certain sensory quality attributes, possibly due to lipid oxidation. In conclusion, LFB feeding could be a viable method of producing pork rich in n-3 PUFAs, but more study is needed to improve sensory quality of pork produced with LFB diets.
Soybean curd residue silage (SCRS) was incorporated into the diet of 24 crossbred (Landrace × White × Duroc) finishing pigs at levels of 0 (control), 15, 30, and 60% for an experimental period of 60 days. The estimated total digestible nutrient intakes (TDN) did not differ among any treatments. The growth performance of pigs did not differ significantly between the control and the 30% or 60% SCRS groups, but growth decreased in the 15% SCRS group (P < 0.05). Pork derived from the pigs fed with 30% or 60% SCRS showed a higher fat content (P < 0.05) and relatively lower shear force values. SCRS feeding generally did not affect fatty acid composition of the pork, and consequently those melting points did not differ among the dietary groups. Feeding SCRS to pigs positively impacted cecal microbiology by reducing coliform, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli numbers (P < 0.05). Thus, feeding of 30% and 60% SCRS may contribute considerably to pig safety and pork quality.
Aso-yellow ocher, is peculiar to Aso region of Kumamoto, contains various minerals such as ferric oxide. We used purified Aso-yellow ocher (PAY) as supplement to diet in piglets. Piglets were given diet containing varying levels (5% in the experiment 1, 2% in the experiment 2, 0% in both experiments) of PAY ad libitum from 4 to 8 weeks (experiment 1) and from 3 to 8 weeks (experiment 2) of age. In the experiment 1, blood characteristics concerning anemia of every weeks and behavior of the piglets aged eight weeks were examined. In the experiment 2, behaviors of the piglets aged from 4 to 8 weeks were examined. In both experiments, we measured body weight gain at every week. In experiment 1, there were no significant difference between supplemental group and control group in total iron binding capacity and amount of hemoglobin. And, there were significance different between both groups, in unsaturated iron binding capacity and serum iron (P<0.05). The amount of serum iron of control group was increased and remained high numerical value at every week. The behaviors of contact with objects, walking and the social behavior were lower in PAY supplemental group (P<0.05) than control group in experiment 1. In experiment 2, iron licking in PAY supplemental group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control group, when piglet aged 4 and 6 weeks. The body weight gains of both the groups were similar in both experiments. In conclusion, it was suggested that there was a possibility that PAY as a supplement to piglet diet reduces the action related to the iron intake.
We investigated the effects of dry matter intake, nutrient balance on milk production and plasma metabolites of cows during early lactation under high ambient temperature. Sixteen cows calved in June and July were used in this experiment. Dry matter intake per body weight (%) were 1.79 at 1 week postpartum, 2.05 at 2 week postpartum and 2.32 at 3 week postpartum. Total nutrient digestibility (TDN), crude protein (CP), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) sufficiency (%) were 58, 84, 80, and 69 at 1 week postpartum, 65, 95, 93, and 79 at 2 week postpartum and 70, 103, 102, and 88 at 3 week postpartum, respectively. One week postpartum, TDN sufficiency was negatively correlated (P<0.01) with milk fat concentration and was positively correlated (P<0.01) with milk lactose concentration. TDN and CP sufficiency did not have the apparent effect on milk protein concentration. At 1 week postpartum, Ca sufficiency was negatively correlated (P<0.01) with milk Ca concentration. At 1 week postpartum, P sufficiency was negatively correlated (P<0.01) with milk P concentration. Plasma NEFA concentration was negatively correlated with TDN sufficiency at 1 week postpartum (P<0.01), at 2 week postpartum (P<0.05), at 3 week postpartum (P<0.01). These results showed that nutrients intake have effects on milk production and plasma metabolites.
The effects of material kinds and processing time on the nutritive contents of shochu condensed distiller soluble (SCDS) were investigated. Samples were collected one time per month from four different processing plants, which process shochu made from rice, barley, sweet potato and barley plus sweet potato, respectively. The nutritive contents of SCDS were different among raw materials. There were high crude protein content in SCDS made from rice and barley, and high energy content in SCDS made from sweet potato. When raw material was one kind, the contents of crude protein and nitrogen free extract in SCDS had fewer changes all the year round, but the variation of dry matter contents was large. In this case, confirming material kind and DM content could estimate relatively correct the nutritive contents. On the other hand, when raw materials were not one kind, the crude protein content of SCDS had a large variation in year-round. In this case, it would be necessary to confirm material kinds and analyze chemical composition. When SCDS is used as a material of fermented TMR, it suggest that its low pH value will have a positive effect on the fermentation, while high buffering capacity and high pentose ratio in total sugar will have a negative effect.
Fourteen rice cultivars for forage use were compared for susceptibility to several herbicides in warm regions of Japan. Mizuhochikara, Momiroman and Ruriaoba were most sensitive to benzobicyclon and tefuryltrione, which are triketone herbicides including of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD) inhibitor. These cultivars were bleached and killed by these herbicides in a standard dose, while they were less sensitive to other tested herbicides including pyrazolate, a pyrazole herbicide of 4-HPPD inhibitor. The other rice cultivars were less sensitive to all tested herbicides. Therefore, it is conducted that triketone herbicides with 4-HPPD inhibitor should not be used for the cultivation of Mizuhochikara, Momiroman and Ruriaoba in paddy fields of these areas.