Awamori is a special alcohol in Okinawa which is produced from rice. Moromi-kasu (rice residue), a by-product of Awamori distillery industry, is remained after separation of alcohol and vinegar. Awamori moromi-kasu was evaluated as a feed of Japanese black calf in this experiment. The awamori moromi-kasu contained total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) by 76.2% and 42.2%, respectively. Some calves were fed with concentrated feed, roughage and awamori moromi-kasu (16% of total feed), and some calves were fed with concentrated feed and roughage. Dry matter and TDN intake did not differ but CP intake was significantly higher when the calves were fed with concentrated feed, roughage and awamori moromi-kasu compared to the calves fed with concentrated feed and roughage. Moromi-kasu contained CP which contributed to higher intake of CP. Withers height, chest girth, abdominal girth, hip width, daily body gaining and feed conversion were not different between the two feeding treatments. The above results indicate that 16% of awamori moromi-kasu could be mixed with the concentrated feed and roughage (regular feed) for Japanese black calf.
Kuroshima is a subtropical island formed from uplifted coral limestone, located to the southwest of Okinawa, Japan. Most of the pasture fields on the island were improved by the continuation construction method of soil stabilizer and stone crusher for crushing exposed limestone and bedrock, and 80% of the total land area is utilized as pasture for beef production. The aim of this study was to select adapted species for improving pasture production. A field experiment was conducted for three years to compare the dry matter productivity of eleven tropical genotypes including the leading three genotypes (Chloris gayana Kunth cv. Katambora, Cynodon nelmfuensis Vanderyst, and Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Gatton) in local cultivation. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate the dry matter productivity of all genotypes. The first two principal components explained 91% of total variability. The first and second principal components were defined as potential dry matter productivity and drought tolerance, respectively, and showed the productivity of Cenchurus ciliaris L. cv. Biloela and Digitaria decumbens cv. Transvala were higher than the other genotypes, and were promising genotypes in this area. In particular, Cenchurus ciliaris L. cv. Biloela was superior in its drought tolerance compared with the other genotypes.
We investigated varietal differences in the salinity tolerance among four forage rice varieties, ‘Nishiaoba', ‘Hoshiaoba',‘Tachiaoba', and ‘Mohretsu', for 35 days after transplanting by pot-culture experiment. Seedlings at 16 days after sowing were transplanted in saline and paddy field soils detecting EC at 0.98 and 0.21 mS/cm, respectively. In saline soil conditions,all varieties except for ‘Mohretsu' showed growth disorder at 100% in both ‘Hoshiaoba' and ‘Nishiaoba', followed by 50% in ‘Tachiaoba', while no visible phenomenon for the disorder appeared in ‘Mohretsu'.In saline soil conditions, shoot dry weights for all varieties also decreased compared with paddy field soil conditions, in the order from the lowest at 7% in ‘Tachiaoba', followed by 11% in ‘Nishiaoba' and 19% in ‘Hoshiaoba', while ‘Mohretsu' decreased by only less than 50%. These results suggest that ‘Mohretsu' should have highest salinity tolerance at least in the early growth stage among the examined varieties.
The present study was conducted to determine chemical composition and its variability of dried Shochu distiller residue cake (DSC) to make effective use of Shochu distiller residue as eco-feed. DSC produced in Miyazaki Prefecture were obtained monthly from February 2008 through January 2009. Samples were analyzed for the chemical composition and contents of amino acid, vitamin E, organic acids and minerals. The average component content was 8.8% moisture, 21.4% crude protein, 3.9% ether extract, 47.3% NFE, 14.0% crude fiber and 4.7% ash. In these chemical components, the coefficient of variation was as low as 3.6 to 10.6%. There was no major change in the amino acid content.Éø-tocopherol content was 245 mg/kg DM, the coefficient of variation was as low as 9.6%. The samples obtained in February and December, which contain different kind of sweet potato in raw material showed some component variations that ash, calcium, phosphorus contents were relatively high, and citric acid content was low as 0.06%. In conclusion, DSC compositions have been stable, and that is a high-quality feed rich in protein, NFE and vitamin E.
Selection responses by deterministic simulation were compared among selection models which had different source of information: SCD (stearoyl-CoA desaturase) genotypes, phenotypic values of an individual and relatives. Selection response per a generation or per unit of a time (half a year) was computed with a framework of selection index. A target trait of the simulated selection was oleic acid (C18:1) percentage of outer layer of subcutaneous fat, and parameter of a gene was assumed to be that of SCD gene. The highest selection response was obtained in a combined selection model of phenotypes of half sib and progeny. The second highest response was in a combined model with phenotypes and genotypes of parents and half sibs of them. Compared among genotypic selection models, a model with information from individual and half sib of them had higher response at earlier generation of the selection, however, it decreased after fourth generation. Whereas, in terms of selection response per unit of time, the model with progeny information had lower response due to longer generation interval. Due to moderate heritability of the oleic acid percentage, selection models with genotypic information had no advantage over the models with only phenotypic information.
The purpose of improvement for meat-type chicken is mainly in weight gain and meat quality. However, excessive fat deposition in abdomen is a problem in strains of chickens that was improved mainly in meat production. Avian uncoupling protein (UCP3) is thought to have a role of thermogenesis, and may affect to lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to clarify the distribution of SNPs g.1270C>T (p.188Ala>Val) and g.1316T>C (Silent) and/or their diplotypes in exon 3 of UCP3 among 11 Asian native fowl populations and 4 commercial breeds. Genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction length polymorphisms method, and 7 diplotypes were detected. Haplotype frequencies were 0.66 (CT), 0.27 (CC), 0.02 (TT) and 0.05 (TC), respectively, in the entire investigated population. The haplotype frequencies, that is consisted of g.1270C>T and g.1316T>C, tend to have much difference by each haplotypes. However, all the haplotypes were remained in both of native fowl and improved chicken. From the results of present study, there is a possible to use the SNP in UCP3 for improvement of meat-type chicken.
In this examination, we studied on the perception of taste of beef through sensory evaluation test. The beef tested was used long-term fattening wagyu, general wagyu and holstein beef. Texture of beef was no significant difference between men and women. Both men and women, beef was evaluated significantly higher in following order: long-term fattening wagyu beef > general wagyu beef > holstein beef in item of tenderness, elasticity and greasy. The other hand, juicy of beef was different between men and women. In men, juicy of beef was evaluated higher in following order: long-term fattening wagyu beef > general wagyu beef > holstein beef. In women, juicy of beef was no difference between the three kinds of beef. In the item of eating quality and comprehensive evaluation, both men and women, beef was evaluated significantly higher in following order: long-term fattening wagyu beef > general wagyu beef > holstein beef. In any age, beef was evaluated significantly higher in following order: long-term fattening wagyu beef > general wagyu beef > holstein beef in item of texture, eating quality and comprehensive evaluation. There was a tendency that the evaluation difference of beef becomes clear evaluation of the adult compared to young.