After 18 days of hanging on the right side, carcass yield decreased by 1%, including 1.9 kg of dehydrated yield, compared with the left side. Cut meat yields decreased about 6% （12.5 kg） with cutting. The cut meat yields de creased（ P < 0.05） in 9 out of 16 meat parts. The breaking strength of loin meat（ M. longissimus thoracis） decreased （P < 0.05）, while the hypoxanthine （Hx） content of nucleic acid-related substances, total free amino acid content, and K-value increased （P < 0.05）. The water content of thigh meat （M. semitendinosus） decreased （P < 0.05）, and the Hx content, total free amino acid content, and K-value increased （P < 0.05）. There were no differences in meat hygiene inspection of edible parts.
The diagnosing Mycobacterium avium（M. avium） that causes swine mycobacteriosis takes a lot of time, because M. avium grows slowly on a medium traditionally used. In order to develop a more-speedy and simple method for detection of swine mycobacteriosis from specimens collected from in pig farms, we examined the MGIT medium for culturing and isolating M. avium following pre-culturing treatments （MGIT method）. Moreover, we compared a PCR （IS901） method with a PCR-RFLP （hsp65） method as an identifying method for M. avium from wild-type Mycobacteria strains isolated from pig farms.
The detection limit of the MGIT method was about ≧ 2×102 CFU per 1g of litter from pig farms, the period required for a positive judgment was ≦ 10 days after starting the culture.
Of 38 wild-type Mycobacteria strains, identification results relating to Mycobacterium avium complex from the both methods matched for 33 strains. The remaining 5 strains were determined to be M. avium by the PCR（IS901） method, while they were unidentified by the PCR-RFLP（hsp65） method.
In conclusion, the MGIT method and the PCR（IS901） method can be useful as methods for isolating and identifying M. avium from environments of pig farms.
We evaluated the effects of free-range goslings on weeds in a tea field from May 24 to July 7, 2014. Two treatments were applied: 1） no goslings, on a control plot of 0.3 a, and 2） four free-ranging goslings （body weight, 570 g; age, 24 days） on an experimental plot of 0.9 a. The goslings were provided with supplementary feed every morning （50% of nutrient requirement）. The goslings spent the most time grazing on Day 6. The goslings grazed preferentially on Bromus catharticus Vahl and Trifolium repens L. The percentage of bare ground in the experimental plot was significantly larger than that in the control plot on Day 44（ P < 0.05）. There was also a significant difference in the herbage mass between the two treatments on Day 44（ P < 0.05）, with an average of 330 kg dry matter/10 a and 43 kg dry matter/10 a in the control and experimental plots, respectively. The average body weights of the goslings on Days 22 and 44 were 1,506, and 2,073 g, respectively. In conclusion, free-ranging goslings effectively weeded a tea field, making it an appropriate context in which to raise them.
Heavy field equipment contributes to plant compaction and soil compaction. These phenomena impede many physiological deteriorations in tiller generation, leaf elongation and root activities and cause stunting and yield loss in grasses. We conducted a comparative study between two Brachiaria grasses （B. ruziziensis and B. brizantha） and rhodes grass （Chloris gayana）. Compact pressure was conducted by one side wheel of agricultural machinery （gross weight: 2.7 t） for three times. The tolerance capacity of the three tropical grasses was investigated in terms of plant length, stem diameter, leaf emergence speed, the transition of the number of tillers and dry matter yield. For plant length and stem diameter, a significant difference （P < 0.05） was recognized between compaction treatment and non-compaction treatment in rhodes grass. The leaf emergence speed was decreased under compaction treatment in palisade grass significantly （P < 0.05）. For the number of tiller regenerated, rhodes grass showed the highest value among grasses. On the other hand, ruzi grass and palisade grass exhibited the vigorous generation of new tillers after first cutting regardless of compaction treatment. The amount of second dry matter yield of three grasses were ordered as follows: palisade grass > ruzi grass > rhodes grass although the differences were not significant. In conclusion, these tropical grasses varied the responses against the compact pressure because of the differences of plant part influenced and the degree, and the different approach for the maintenance the number of tillers. Additionally, ruzi grass and palisade grass were more superior than rhodes grass, indicating that these new introduced forage grasses can be useful as an annual forage production under agricultural machinery system.