The use of domestic rice and by-product for fattening cattle has been an important issue for improvement of feed self-sufficiency in Japan. Many researchers reported that domestic rice could be fed to fattening cattle when the level of paddy rice, brown rice, or paddy rice grain silage contained in the concentrate mixture was 30-60%, 30-40%, or 30% on a dry matter basis, respectively. Furthermore, brewers grains (5-30% in the concentrate mixture), soybean curd residue (10-30%), or shochu distillers residue (several percentage) could also be fed to fattening cattle in past experiments. We conducted three experiments to investigate the effects of fermented TMR on fattening performance of Japanese Black cattle (twelve mature cows: 12 years of age, 400 kg of body weight; twelve steers: 23 months of age, 770 kg of body weight; eleven steers: 17 months of age, 600 kg of body weight). Fermented TMR contained brown rice, soybean curd residue, wheat bran, condensed sweet potato distillers solubles, or soy sause cake. No adverse effect on fattening performance, plasma metabolite concentration and enzyme activity, carcass and meat traits of cattle fed fermented TMR, replacing 60% of concentrate. Level of α-tocopherol increased in serum and rib eye muscle when fattening cattle fed the fermented TMR containing condensed sweet potato distillers solubles. Therefore, use of domestic rice and by-product for fattening cattle would improve the feed self-sufficiency in Japan and the quality of beef meat.
In this study, male broiler chickens (Chunky strain) were fed with dried and powdered yacon aboveground parts (DYAP) to investigate the effect of dietary DYAP on the accumulation of abdominal fat pad. DYAP was added to the commercial diet at rate of 5% extra, and the experiment was conducted from 10 to 63 age of days. It was measured that the total live weight, weights of the three body parts and the abdominal fat pad, and fatty acid compositions of the abdominal fat pad. As a result, the broiler chicken fed with DYAP delayed the growth from 21 age of days, and at 63 age of days, the body weight was significantly lower than the control. However, the significant difference was not detected in weights of the forelimb which includes breast muscles and the hindlimb which includes thigh between both groups. On the other hand, the broiler chicken fed with DYAP showed evident decreases in the weight of abdominal fat than the control broiler chicken. There was no change in the fatty acid composition of abdominal fat. In conclusion, it was suggested that the feeding with DYAP for broiler chicken influences inhibitedly abdominal fat accumulation without the remarkable reduction in meat production.
This study investigated the effects of fermented TMR containing condensed sweet-potato distillers soluble on mineral excretion into urine. In a 2 × 2 crossover design, four Japanese Black steers (11.6±0.4 months of age, BW: 364.5±37.2 kg) were offered commercial concentrate and rice straw (Concentrate group) or fermented TMR containing condensed sweet-potato distillers soluble and rice straw (TMR group). There were no significant difference in total dry matter intake between Concentrate group and TMR group. The Na, K, Cl, P, Ca and Mg intake of steers in TMR group were signifi cantly higher (P<0.01) than those in Concentrate group. There were no significant difference in plasma Na, K, Cl, Pi, Ca and Mg concentration between Concentrate group and TMR group. The concentration of urine Mg in steers of TMR group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that in Concentrate group. The concentrations of urine Ca in steer of TMR group were tended to be higher than (P<0.10) those in Concentrate group. The urinary concentration of K to creatinine of steers in TMR group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in Concentrate group. The urinary concentration of Cl to creatinine in steers in TMR group was tended to be higher (P<0.10) than that in Concentrate group. The urinary concentration of Mg to creatinine of steers in TMR group was tended to be lower (P<0.10) than that in Concentrate group.
Several soil-applied herbicides cannot be used in dry-seeded rice cultivation with double harvesting for forage rice because the harvesting time of the first crop is approximately two months earlier than cultivation with single harvesting. Therefore, instead of soil-applied herbicides, we examined weed control using the weed suppression ability of forage rice cultivar Ruriaoba in addition to the foliar-applied herbicides in dry-seeded rice cultivation with double harvesting. Our results suggest that it is possible to control most of growing weeds by two applications of glyphosate-potassium salt (48.0%, 50 mL/a) applied before emergence of rice and cyhalofop-butyl + bentazone liquid formulation (3.0% cyhalofop-butyl and 20.0% bentazone, 100 mL/a) applied before flooding. However, in paddy fi elds where Aeschynomene indica L. is the dominant species, it was possible to control most of growing weeds including this species by three applications of glyphosate-potassium salt applied before emergence of rice and cyhalofop-butyl + bentazone liquid formulation applied before flooding and after flooding.
This study evaluated sire type, calf sex and caving number in 15 farms of Okinawa prefecture from 2001 to 2010 to clarify the reasons for transitional changes of gestation length of Japanese Black breeding cows. This study showed that average gestation length was 287.7±5.5 days, and first gestation length was significantly shorter (286.2±5.8 days; p<0.01) than the later gestation length. Gestation length was longer with the increasing number of caving, and the longest gestation was 288.8±5.6 days for the 8th caving. Gestation length was 1.2 days longer for the male calf than for female calf. Gestation length of Tajiri strain was 0.7 and 1.1 days longer than that of Fujiyoshi and Kedaka, respectively. Gestation length was shortest (286.5 days) in 2001 and longer with the subsequent year; and caving number also increased with the year. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant relationship between gestation length and caving number. These results indicate that caving number is one of the factors influencing gestation length of Japanese Black breeding cows.
The effects of varying proportions of flaked unhulled rice grain in the diet on nutrient intake, rumen fermentation and nitrogen balance in dairy cows were examined. Four Holstein dry cows were used for this study and they were allocated to the following 3 dietary treatments in turn, i.e. concentrates only (control: 0%), replaced 20% of concentrates with unhulled rice grain on a dry matter basis (20%), and replaced 40% of concentrates with unhulled rice grain (40%). There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among treatments. Starch contents were 14.8, 20.9 and 26.1% for the 0, 20 and 40% diets, respectively, but the digestibility did not significantly differ among diets. Although TDN content in the 40% diet was significantly lower than that in the 0% diet (P<0.05), there was no significant difference in TDN intake between diets. Ruminal pH, total VFA contents, VFA composition excluding propionic acid and ammonia N were not affected by the degree of supplementation with unhulled rice grain. In addition, the cows fed a 40% diet had a significantly lower percentage of fecal nitrogen to nitrogen intake than that under other diets (P<0.05), however there was no significant difference in microbial nitrogen synthesis per digestible organic matter intake in the rumen and blood urea nitrogen. Therefore, these findings suggest that it is possible to substitute unhulled rice grain for up to 40% of ordinary rations in dry cows.