The use of paddy for feed production has become an important issue in Japan on the grounds of adjustment of rice production, restoration of abandoned cultivated land, conservation of cropland resources and farming environment as well as improvement of feed self-sufficiency. In this era of high wages, high material cost, and depreciation of farmland under population decline, low-input, labor-saving, and land-extensive farming techniques such as grazing are more advantageous than intensive techniques. It's also indispensable to practice an intensive technique like forage rice production because stored feed is needed for winter feed and most farmland is paddy in Japan. Therefore, an optimal combination of grazing and forage rice production on paddy is essential for improvement of feed self-sufficiency, development of cattle farming, and enlargement of farmland managed.
The bovine thyroglobulin gene on chromosome 14 is a candidate for the marbling score and other carcass traits. In this study, we analyzed the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the thyroglobulin gene (TG5) with the predicted breeding values of carcass traits in Japanese Black sires and dams of Saga prefecture. In addition, we also analyzed the relationship between TG5 and the carcass traits using Japanese Black steers of Itoharusakae. Genotyping 42 sires and dams for the SNP revealed 7 animals homozygous for C allele, 19 animals heterozygous for C allele and T allele, and 16 animals homozygous for T allele. Statistically significant differences were detected in the predicted breeding values for rib eye area (P<0.05). The predicted breeding values for rib eye area were significantly higher in the CT heterozygote than the CC homozygote. Genotyping 232 steers of the Itoharusakae revealed 44 animals homozygous for C allele, 117 animals heterozygous for C allele and T allele, and 71 animals homozygous for T allele. Statistically significant difference for the SNP genotype was not detected in all carcass traits.
This experiment was conducted to find out the effects of 5% dried water hyacinth and 3% fresh water hyacinth (dry base) supplementation to a commercial pig diet, on the growth, carcass qualities, gastrointestinal tract and muscle weights, sensory qualities and the composition of the fatty acids of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in pigs. The experiment showed that the supplementation of water hyacinth in its dry form or fresh form did not have any significant effects on the daily weight gains, feed conversion ratio, carcass weights and dressing percentages. The results revealed that the 5% dried water hyacinth supplemented diet caused a reduction in the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids and increased saturated fatty acids in the LT muscle. The sensory evaluation results showed that juiciness and overall acceptability of the 5% dried water hyacinth treated meat resulted in higher score (p<0.05). These results imply the possibility of water hyacinth to be used as a feed supplement in commercial pig diet both in 3% fresh basis and 5% dry basis.
We investigated the possibility of a beef production system using year-round outdoor grazing and self-sufficient feed supplies such as corn silage for Japanese Brown (Kumamoto) (JB-K) (n = 3, 6-7 mo, 253±7 kg) and Japanese Black (JB) (n = 6, 6-7 mo, 230±17 kg) steers in southern Japan. JB-K and JB steers were grazed year-round outdoors on pasture, predominantly Italian ryegrass in the winter season and bahiagrass in summer. Cattle grazed until they reached a slaughter body weight of 751±15 kg (JB-K) and 613±15 kg (JB steers). Animals were fed corn silage in addition to their grazing of pasture from 24 months of age. JB-K steers achieved high (0.8-1.4 kg/day) daily weight gain during the grazing period compared with JB steers (0.4-0.9 kg/day). Plasma composition was affected by the chemical composition of the feed; in particular, the low crude protein of bahiagrass and corn silage. After slaughter, the carcass grade for JB-K and JB steers were A-2 and B-2, respectively. Both the shear-force value and collagen content of the longissimus thoracis muscle of JB-K steers were higher than those of JB steers. Both JB-K and JB steers showed high protein and low lipid contents in addition to high vitamin contents compared with those conventional beef. These results may have been affected by the vitamin composition of grass and the development of connective tissue in skeletal muscle as a result of grazing.
The bovine Akirin2 gene is located in the middle of chromosome 9 and a candidate gene for marbling score. The association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (+22220, A/G) with marbling score in Japanese Black population of Oita prefecture and significant effect for marbling score have been reported. In this study, the association of the SNP with the predicted breeding values of carcass traits in Japanese Black sires and dams of Saga prefecture was analyzed. The relationship between the SNP and the carcass traits of Japanese Black steers of Itoharusakae's paternal half-sib family was also studied. Genotyping 33 sires and dams for the SNP revealed 11 animals homozygous for A allele, 12 animals heterozygous for G allele and A allele, and 10 animals homozygous for G allele. Statistically significant differences were detected in the predicted breeding values for carcass weight and rib thickness (P<0.05). The predicted breeding values for carcass weight and rib thickness were significantly higher in the GG homozygote. Genotyping 238 steers of the Itoharusakae's paternal half-sib family revealed 60 animals homozygous for A allele, 122 animals heterozygous for G allele and A allele, and 56 animals homozygous for G allele. The meat luster and meat tightness and texture grade were significantly higher in the AA homozygote.
In a previous report, we examined the effect on carcass characteristics, meat quality and the immunity of fattening pigs of a single feeding on a concrete flat floor of the second tea manufacturing residual (TR), which has increased bitterness and higher concentrations of functional ingredients than the first TR. As the result, we found that feeding fattening pigs the second TR improved carcass characteristics, meat quality and tended to reinforce the immunity of fattening pigs in comparison with that of the first TR. Here we examined the effect of the second TR, which has increased bitterness and higher functional ingredient levels than the first TR, on carcass characteristics and mean quality and immunity of fattening pigs in a group feeding off of a flat concrete floor. Twenty-four castrated Landrace pigs were divided into four groups: the first TR group, the second TR group, the no-antibacterial group and the control group. When the examination was started, the average initial body weights of the four groups exceeded 30 kg. There was no change of the feed from the first feeding period to the second feeding period, which began when their average weight reached the range of 65-75 kg. The pigs were slaughtered when they reached a weight of approximately 110 kg. In growth results, no meaningful difference was recognized in terms of the daily weight gain. In carcass results, no significant difference was recognized in carcass weight, but in comparison with the thick-back-fat (loin) control group, the second TR group became significantly thinner. As for the α-tocopherol content in a carcass, no significant difference was confirmed in the sirloin, but, as for the back fat, the second TR group was significantly higher in comparison with the control group. As for the IgG density, no significant difference was confirmed, but as for the blood AR antibody titer, the first TR group was high compared to the control and the no-antibacterial group on the 21th and 28th day. As for the IgA density, the second TR group was high compared to the no-antibacterial group on the 14th day. In addition, we confirmed the increase of the high-grade carcass rating because of the back fat thickness reduction in the farmhouse examination. These results suggested that feeding the second TR as an additive improved carcass characteristics and meat quality and tended to reinforce the immunity of fattening pigs in comparison with that of the first TR.
The experiment was conducted to evaluate a rapid and accurate laboratory method of predicting the nutritive value of eco-feeds (feeds made of recycled food waste), comparing indicator and in vitro methods with an in vivo method. The nutritive values of eco-feeds and commercial formula feeds were measured by the total collection method (in vivo method), indicator method and in vitro method. The nutritive values that were obtained by those methods were compared. Acid-insoluble ash (AIA) was used as a marker of the indicator method. The in vitro digestibility was analyzed according to the method of Boisen and Fernandez (1997). Digestibilities of EE, CA and CF by the AIA method were significantly correlated with the in vivo digestibilities (p<0.01, r>0.7), but significant correlations were not observed regarding CP, NFE, OM and DM. DCP, DEE, DCF, DNFE, DOM and TDN by the AIA method were significantly correlated with the values of the in vivo method (p<0.05, r>0.46). The regression equation between the in vivo OMD and the in vitro OMD was significant (OMD = 0.39*OMDv+0.60, r = 0.81, p<0.05). It is suggested that the in vitro technique of estimating OM digestibility can be applied to predict in vivo OM digestibility of eco-feeds, and also the AIA method and the in vitro method will be applicable to estimating the nutritive values of eco-feeds.
This study investigated the behavioural characteristics of the Japanese native chicken, Gifu native fowl, under cage conditions. We studied both Gifu native fowl, which is one of the oldest and most famous traditional breeds in Japan and commercial hens (Dekalb XL). These birds were reared under battery cage conditions, a management system defined as a behavioural restricted environment. Ten birds each of Gifu native fowl and commercial hens were reared in individual battery cages (948 cm2/bird). Behavioural observations were performed from 06:00 to 16:00 using a 1-min-interval scan sampling method. Time ratios of feeding and sitting for commercial hens (38.1% and 9.6%, respectively) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those for Gifu native fowl (23.1% and 3.7%, respectively), while time ratios of stereotypic pacing and preening for Gifu native fowl (6.1% and 26.2%, respectively) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those for commercial hens (1.7% and 14.0%, respectively). There were no significant differences in other behaviours between the 2 breeds. These results indicate that Gifu native fowl may exhibit fewer instances of stereotypical behaviour under cage conditions.