Shochu distillery by-products can be effectively used as animal feed although the moisture content is very high. Moisture contents of shochu distillery by-products derived from sweet potato, barley and rice are 95 %, 92 % and 92%, respectively. Relative protein contents of shochu distillery by-products are high and thus they are good protein sources. Indeed, until around 1972, shochu distillery by-products had been used widely as a liquid feed for pigs and cows. However, due to the modernization of pig farming, farmers stopped feeding the by-products. In the case of daily farming, feeding the by-products was prohibited because their smell moves into the milk. The new technology to process shochu distillery by-products makes easier to feed them to farm animals. Shochu distillery by-products are first separated to the liquid and solid parts by a decanter or a screw-press. The separated solid parts (cake) contain 85% and 65% moisture in the case of sweet potato and barley shochu distillery by-products, respectively. Drying the cakes is much easier than drying the raw materials. Dried cake is already widely used as an ingredient of formula feeds. The cakes are sometime fed to cows without drying. But feeding the cake is laborious because the cake is sticky and heavy. The liquid part is condensed to about 60% moisture and then used as ingredients of TMR and formula feed. Condensing the liquid make easier not only transportation but also long-term preservation. In addition, it is clarified that both solid and liquid parts have growth promoting effect in broiler and pig.
Silky fowl is well known for its medicinal properties, and the eggs are very expensive in Japan. The egg production rate of the silky fowl is very low because of broodiness. Some researchers have reported that candidate genes located on chromosome 2 of the silky fowl, such as the prolactin gene, are related to broodiness, egg production rate, and age at first egg. To investigate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection, the markers of candidate genes (prolactin gene, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 gene, and neuropeptide Y gene) were genotyped in silky fowls of the 5th generation of Oita's selection program. The effect of the father was significant (P < 0.01) for all the traits including the egg production rate;however, the genotypic effects of the three candidate gene markers were not significant for all the traits. These results suggested that the genetic variation of silky fowls in Oita's selection program is high, and that the egg production rate in the silky fowl population can be improved.
The objective of this study was to improve an in vitro tissue culture system for the dwarf napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. ). Additionally, it was needed special treatments for acclimatization, and carried the risks of somaclonal variation and physiological aberrations. Shoot apices as initial explants were isolated aseptically from shoottillers, and cultured on in vitro MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing 3.0% sucrose and 0.3% phytagel. The most effective phytohormone treatment for multiple-shoot clumps (MSCs) induction was 0.1 mg L-1 2,4-D plus 2.0 mg L-1 BAP. The addition of 50 μM CuSO4 could increase the percentage of MSCs proliferation. Plant regeneration frequency was achieved up to 84% by culturing the MSCs on solid MS medium containing 0.1 mg L-1 NAA and 2.0 mg L-1 BAP. All regenerants were successfully grown up in the soil. Compared to control plants, in vitro regenerated plants did not reveal any significant difference (P > 0.05) on morphological characteristics and DNA content. The results of this study suggest that improved protocols for in vitro propagation would provide high quality nursery plant production of dwarf napiergrass in grassland field.
The objective of this study was to obtain the basic information on the effective use of geese for vegetation management in an orchard. An experiment was conducted to prove the influence of free-ranging 10 geese (average 2.6 kg BW, 4 to 5 months of age) on weeding in the blueberry orchard (Vaccinium ashei Reade, 18a) from September to November in 2009 (68 days). In the blueberry orchard, there were a lot of grass weeds and the dominant species was Digitaria adscendens (H. B. K. ) Henr.. The geese more frequently grazed on grasses than on other plant species (P<0.01), however, they did not browse the leaf and bark of the blueberry at all. There was no significance in the percentage of bare ground between the treatments at the end of grazing period. Herbage mass of the free-ranging plot was significantly smaller than that of the control plot (adjacent area to geese free-ranging) (P<0.01) at that time. These results indicated that the free-ranging geese suppressed the weed in a blueberry orchard and they were helpful in weeding.
The radical scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and in vitro dry-matter (DM) degradability of purple maize (Zea mays L. ) stover were determined using single-cross hybrids between anthocyanin-rich inbreds and normal inbreds to investigate the effects of antioxidative activity on cell-wall degradability. DM degradability was positively correlated with antioxidative activity (r = 0.450, P < 0.001). The regression coefficient suggests that degraded DM had a molecular mass of 2,240 g/mol Trolox equivalent on an average. The 1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-soluble fraction used for the determination of antioxidative activity accounted for an average of 74% of degraded DM and correlated linearly with DM degradability. Acid hydrolysate and thin-layer chromatography of 1% TFA soluble fraction showed the presence of feruloyl saccharides, and the intensities of the fluorescence of feruloyl saccharides were greater in more degradable and more antioxidative samples. These results indicate that endogenous antioxidative activity improves the in vitro DM degradability of purple maize stover because of increased soluble feruloyl saccharides that would have otherwise oxidatively cross-linked with polysaccharides in the cell walls.
In order to compare the behavioural responses to humans of Jersey cows between different stockpersons, the cows were observed for 3 types of behaviour: stepping, kicking and lifting associated with the hind foot during milking. Milking was performed by the stockpersons with two different skill levels, i. e. students with little experience and teachers with much experience. Cow temperament was assessed by each reaction in behavioural tests (flight response, touch, novel object and conflict) indicative of fear response. The number of steps made by the cows prior to milking in the morning and evening was significantly different between the students (7.1 ±7.1 and 7.9 ±7.4) and the teachers (3.8 ±4.4 and 3.6 ±3.2)(P<0.05). In contract, the number of lifts of the cows during milking in the morning and evening was significantly less in the students (0.5 ±1.0 and 0.7 ±1.0) than the teachers (1.2 ±1.9 and 2.9 ±3.4) (P<0.05). The number of kicks made by the cows before the student milked was negatively correlated with the frequency of touching toward the object in the novel object test (rs = -0.892, P < 0.05). The number of lifts performed by the cows while the student was milking was negatively correlated with feeding latency in the conflict test (rs = -0.926, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hind foot-related behaviour of the Jersey cows during milking was affected by the stockpersons, indicating the possible effects of their skill and/or novelty. However, the relation of the behaviour with fear responses was not verified.
The cultivation of rice plants for whole crop silage (WCS) production is increasing. Further increases in WCS production could be achieved by extending the suitable harvest period of rice plants through planting rice plant varieties that mature at different times. We therefore sought to assess whether the new early-maturing "Makimizuho" variety, developed by the National Agricultural Research Center for Kyushu Okinawa Region, could be planted together with the widely planted and very latematuring "Tachiaoba" variety in Fukuoka Prefecture. Specifically, we wanted to clarify whether the "Makimizuho" variety, which has a high yielding ability and favorable cultivation characteristics, could be used instead of the older "Hoshiaoba" variety, which is also an early maturing variety. We also examined the relationship between extending the suitable harvesting period of the "Makimizuho" variety and the prevailing climate conditions in Fukuoka Prefecture using cultivation experiments and assessed different outcomes on operational risk. The results revealed that the "Makimizuho" variety might have a better lodging resistance and feeding value than the "Hoshiaoba" variety. In addition, under the climate conditions prevalent in Fukuoka Prefecture, extending the suitable harvesting period using an optimal ratio of 4:6 for the Makimizuho : Tachiaoba varieties increased the planted area of the "Makimizuho" variety (34 days) by 1.7 times compared to that obtained from a single cropping of the "Tachiaoba" variety (20 days) .
This study was compared local meat-type Amakusa Daio chickens with broilers to investigate how differences in rearing types (floor rearing and single cage rearing) affect growth, meat productivity and fat accumulation. The body weight of both floor rearing and single cage rearing Amakusa Daio chickens fell below that of broilers from 15 days old, and the feed conversion rate rose dramatically after 85-92 days old in chickens reared under either condition. In both chicken varieties, chickens reared on floor showed better weight gains and higher skeletal muscle weight than chickens reared in single cage, while weight per 100 grams of body weight after skinning (relative value) was roughly the same in chickens reared under either condition. The relative weights(percentage to the total muscle weights) of skeletal muscles in hind legs showed significantly higher in Amakusa Daio chickens compared with broilers. The ratio of fat accumulation such as abdominal fat increased with age in both Amakusa Daio chickens and broilers, and accumulation of fat did not decrease in either variety when reared on floor. These findings suggest that skeletal muscle in hind legs shows better growth in Amakusa Daio chickens, and floor rearing promotes better growth and development of skeletal muscle in both Amakusa Daio chickens and broilers under the influence of rearing types. Further studies are needed to investigate market age and measures for reducing accumulation of fat, such as abdominal fat.
Skeletal muscle weight and muscle fiber characteristics of local meat-type Amakusa Daio chickens under single cage or flock floor rearing systems were examined in comparison with broilers. In broilers, body weight after skinning and weights of M. pectoralis and M. iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis tended to be higher with flock floor rearing than with single cage rearing at 60 and 90 days old(P<0.1), with distinct differences between rearing types at 90 days old(P<0.05). On the other hand, Amakusa Daio chickens reared on the floor tend to show higher M. pectoralis weight than those with single cage rearing at 60, 90 and 120 days old(P<0.1), with particularly marked differences between rearing types at 90 days old(P<0.05). However, body weight after skinning and M. iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis weights showed no significant differences between rearing types in Amakusa Daio chickens. In both chickens, M. pectoralis weight per 100 g body weight after skinning was shown to be somewhat higher with flock floor rearing than with single cage rearing (P<0.1). In particular, Amakusa Daio chickens revealed marked differences between rearing types at 60 and 90 days old(P<0.05). However, weights of M. iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis in both chickens did not differ significantly between rearing types at 60, 90 or 120 days old. Broilers showed a marked increase in weight of the testes from 60 to 90 days old(P<0.01), as did Amakusa Daio chickens from 90 to 120 days old(P<0.01). Size of type IIR or type IIW myofibers in M. pectoralis of flock floor reared broilers tended to be larger than that of single cage reared chickens(P<0.1). In contrast, the number of type IIR myofibers from M. pectoralis and M. iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis in flock floor reared Amakusa Daio chickens tend to increase from 60 to 90 days old(P<0.1). M. pectoralis and M. iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis of flock floor reared Amakusa Daio chickens at 90 and 120 days old, compared to single cage reared chickens, showed a greater increase in the number of type IIR myofibers(P<0.05). M. pectoralis of flock floor reared Amakusa Daio chickens at 90 and 120 days old also showed a larger type IIR myofibers, compared to single cage reared chickens(P<0.05). These findings suggest that although flock floor rearing promotes better growth of skeletal muscle in both Amakusa Daio chickens and broilers, M. iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis only shows better growth with marked development of the testes in later fattening, regardless of rearing type. Furthermore, effects of rearing type on muscle fiber characteristics were stronger in Amakusa Daio chickens than in broilers, and flock floor rearing increased the number of type IIR myofibers with age in local meat-type Amakusa Daio chickens.