Investigations were made to determine the effects of bathing on the body metabolism of alcohol and its intermediary metabolite, acetaldehyde. The experiments were made using rabbits. Results were as follows: 1) In 20 minutes bathing in water of 23°C or 45°C immediately after the intake of 1g. per kg. of alcohol by stomach tube, the blood alcohol levels for the first 2 hours were lower significantly than those of control (alcohol alone) and thereafter no signicant changes were observed. On the other hand, acetaldehyde blood levels were lower than those of control for the first 2 hours after alcohol intake and thereafter higher than control. In the bathing in water of 38°C, there were no significant changes cone erning them eta-bolic rate of alcohol and acetaldehyde. 2) In 20 minutes bathing in water of 45°C or 23°C 1 hour after alcohol intake, the rate of disappearance of alcohol from the blood was significantly delayed during and 30 minutes after the bathing. Acetaldehyde blood levels were higher than those of control in 2 to 6 hours following alcohol ingestion. In the bathing in water of 42°C, the rate of disappearance of alcohol from the blood was slightly accelerated while acetaldehyde blood levels were unchanged. In 60 minutes bathing in water of 39°C after the oral administration of 2g. per kg. of alcohol, its blood levels were lower than those of control for the first 3 hours. 3) In 20 minutes bathing in water of 45°C or 38°C or 23°C after intravenous injection of 1g. per kg. of alcohol, the rate of disappearance of alcohol from the blood was slightly delayed while in water of 42°C it was slightly acceleratad. Acetaldehyde blood levels were unchangeable in all the cases. 4) In 60 minutes bathing in water of 39°C after 1/2 hour and 4 hours following the injection of 2g. per kg. of alcohol, the metabolic rate of it tended to be delayed. 5) In 20 minutes bathing in water of 39°C from 5 minutes after the intravenous administration of 50mg. per kg. of acetaldehyde, the rate of disappearance of it from the blood decreased significantly in 60 to 90 minutes following its administration. 6) When rabbits pretreated with Disulfiram received 50mg. per kg. of acetaldehyde intravenously and 5 minutes later were put into the bath in water of 39°C for 20 minutes, the rate of elimination of acetaldehyde was significantly delayed. 7) In 20 minutes bathing in water of 39°C from 15 minutes after the intravenous administration of 1g. per kg. of alcohol and 100mg. per kg. of acetaldehyde at the same time, no significant changes in metabolic rate of alcohol were noted while acetaldehyde blood levels remained significantly higher, compared with the control.
Authors made an examination of the effect of warm bath after alcohol intake on the metabolic rate of alcohol and blood pressure. The experiments were made on 4 male medical students with normal blood pressure in the winter. As soon as they took the alcohol (1g/kg), they were put into the bath and then the blood pressure, respiration, pulse rate, body temperature and the blood alcohol levels were taken. Observations were made on the subjects to determine the clinical level of intoxication during the period of alcohol intake as well as the recovery period five hours later. Results obtained were as follows: 1) In the bathing at a 44°C water for 20 minutes after drinking, the rate of disappearance of alcohol from the blood (mg/dl/hr) was delayed significantly compared with the controls (alcohol alone). On the other hand, in a 38°C bathing for 20 minutes after drinking, the changes in metabolic rate of alcohol were not significant. 2) The urine output following alcohol intake was more markedly increased than the controls (water intake). In 38°C bathing after alcohol intake, the urinary flow was reduced significantly than alcohol alone, and in 44°C bathing after alcohol, decrease in urine output was further more remarkable. There was no difference of alcohol concentration in urine between alcohol intake without bathing and that with bathing. Therefore, alcohol output in urine was dependent upon urine flow respectively. 3) Systolic blood pressure for 1 to 2 hours after bathing, both in 44°C bathing alone and 38°C bathing alone, decreased significantly to the value about 10mmHg lower than pre-bathing value and remained constant. On the other hand, diastolic blood pressure during bathing decreased significantly (10-20mmHg) though temporarily. Pulse pressure was reduced significantly for 2 to 5 hours after bathing. Alcohol intake without bathing also showed a significant reduction of pulse pressure for 1 to 5 hours after drinking. During the bathing at 38°C after drinking, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (about 15mmHg) and was reduced for 2 to 5 hours after bathing, as in the case of the bathing alone at 38°C. Diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly during bathing. Changes in blood pressure in bathing at 44°C after drinking were similar to those in the bathing of 38°C after drinking. 4) In alcohol intake alone, body temperature lowered by 0.5°C for one hour after drinking and pulse rate increased somewhat. With 38°C bathing alone, pulse rate increased during bathing and even at 30 minutes after bathing, but decreased more than prebathing value at one hour after bathing. In 44°C bathing alone, body temperature rose by 1°C immediately after bathing and pulse rate furthermore increased than in 38°C bathing alone. In 38°C bathing following alcohol intake, pulse rate during bathing increased more than in 38°C bathing alone or drinking alone. In 44°C bathing following alcohol intake, the increase in pulse rate was more remarkable than in 38°C bathing after drinking. Finally, judging from the results above mentioned, the bathing following alcohol intake in subjects who are suffering from a circulatory disease may cause an injurious effect on cardiovascular system.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the maximum permissible concentration of copper in mineral waters through internal use. To each rabbit of 10 groups (each group consists of 2 rabbits) was administered for 30 days daily by a stomach tube 10cc of copper sulfate solution, the concentration of which were 19.2, 64, 192, 640, 19.2×102, 32×102, 64×102, 12.8×103, 32×103, 64×103mg/kg (7.5, 25, 75, 250, 750, 1.25×103, 2.5×103, 5×103, 12.5×103, 25×103mg/kg as copper) respectively. Body weight, hemoglobin content, red, and white blood cell counts, serum total protein, alkaline phosphatase, choline-esterase, and diamine-oxidase activities of serum were determined weekly; and the liver, kidney, and spleen were examined histologically (H. E. staining and copper staining) after the treatment was over. As for body weight, blood examinations and serum analysis, the groups administered under 640mg/kg of copper sulfate solution (250mg/kg as copper showed no abnormalities). Histologically (H. E. staining only), the groups administered under 19.2×102mg/kg of copper sulfate solution (750mg/kg as copper) had no pathological findings. The minimal concentration where copper pigment granules were proved histologically in the liver cells by copper staining was 64mg/kg of copper sulfate solution (25mg/kg as copper). In the liver cells of the groups administered 19.2mg/kg of copper sulfate solution (7.5mg/kg as copper) was proved no copper pigment granule. Therefore, when taken daily by oral use for 30 days, the maximum permissible dose of copper (not copper sulfate) in mineral water is estimated to be 10cc of 7.5mg/kg to a 2kg rabbit, or when compared by body weight, 250cc of 7.5mg/kg solution, and 0.625mg/kg if daily 3 litres are taken, to a human adult of 50kg body weight. Only few of the Japanese mineral waters contain more than 7.5mg/kg of copper, so the internal use of the other mineral waters. 250cc daily for 30 days, will have no toxic effects by copper to human adults. As all the highly copper containing mineral waters of Japan belong to strongly acid vitriol or alum vitriol springs, dilution with water is inevitable at the time of drinking, so that generally not more than 20cc daily is used perorally. And when taken 25cc a day the maximum permissible concentration of copper containing waters will be 75mg/kg.
In an attempt to establish maximum permissible concentration of zinc in mineral waters for the internal use as drinking cure, not only toxic effects of zinc but also influence of the external and internal use of a thermal water against zinc poisoning were studied experimentally. Twenty rabbits, weighing 2kg each, were divided into five groups. The animals in the groups I, II, and III were given 20ml of zinc sulfate solution in distilled water by stomach tube in daily doses of 400mg, 200mg, 80mg, per kg of bodyweight respectively for one month, whereas in the group IV the rabbits were given 20ml of a water of Ito Hot Springs (simple thermals) to which zinc sulfate was added in amount to make up a daily dose of 200mg per kg of bodyweight and pH of the water was adjusted to 2 and 7 respectively. The group V consisted of control animals to which the same amount of distilled water was given daily with stomach tube also. Twenty mice weighing 20gm each were divided into 2 groups. Groups I was bathed for two weeks in Ito Hot Springs at 37°-38° once daily for 15 minuites. To group II (control) no bath was given. After two weeks each group was given LD 50 of zinc sulfate solution, 175mg per kg of bodyweight, parenterally. In group I loss of bodyweight, rise in temperature, increases in blood zinc level and of serum diastase activity, leucopenia, hypoproteinemia, diarrhea, and melena were noticed. Histological investigation revealed necrosis and fatty degeneration of the liver, hyaline droplet degeneration of the kidney, and erosion of the intestine. In group II loss of bodyweight, rise in temperature, leucocytosis, increase of serum diastase activity, increases in blood zinc level, and edema of the liver were found. In group III no pathological changes were confirmed. In group IV, in spite of the same rise in blood zinc level as in group II, neither leucocytosis no increase of serum diastase activity were noted. Concerning the mortality of the mice there was no marked difference between the bath group and the control group. It was concluded that the maximum permissible dose of orally given zinc sulfate was between daily 80mg-200mg per kg of bodyweight by administration for a month, namely corresponding to daily 4g in human adult. As mineral waters with high zinc content in Japan used to be strongly acid and mostly belong to acid vitriol or acid alum vitriol springs, they could not be used as drinking water and even for drinking cure daily only 10-50ml could be taken after dilution with common water. But on an assumption that mineral water taken per os daily is less than one litre, the maximum permissible concentration of zinc sulfate in mineral water is estimated to be 4gm per litre for the internal use during one month. The highest record of zinc content in Japanese mineral waters is 965mg ZnSO4 per kg (Sasakura Hot Spring, not issuing at present) and 2.01mg Zn per litre (Arima Hot Springs). Therefore there would be no probability of zinc poisoning from drinking of mineral water in Japan. Moreover internal use of a thermal water of Ito inhibited the toxic effect of zinc sulfate even after lowering pH of the water to 2.0.
The authors made a research on the effect of the acid hot spring bathing at Tamagawa Spring (an acid vitriol sulphur spring) upon the nucleic acid of the liver tissues of rabbits. The backs of rabbits were shaved, and some of them received a bathing for 10 minutes at 42-43°C and others serial bathing for 14 days (10 minutes once a day at 42-43°C). In the cases of single bathing, the examinations were done in 30 minutes, 24 hours, 3 clays and in 7 days after bathing, while in the cases of serial bathing, it was done on the 3rd, 7th, 10th, and 14th days of the bathing and in 3 days and 7 days after the end of the serial bathing. For dyeing of RNA of liver tissues, we used a pyronin-methyl-green staining, ribonuclease digestion and treatment with perchloric acid. For estimating the contents of RNA, the authors newly devised a standard in which the cells were classified under 11 types according to the size and the number of nucleolus, and the RNA contents were estimated in 200 liver cells of each rabbit. Results of the experiment; 1) The RNA contents of the liver tissue of the normal control group, being separetely observed at the central, the intermediary and the perilobular areas of the lobules, showed the following values in each type of those three areas. Type 0 was 1.3-1.6%, type 1: 0.8-1.5%, type 2: 7.7-7.8%, type 3: 12.9-14.5%, type 4: 2-2.7%, type 5: 0.5-0.8%. type 6: 13.8-15.7%, type 7: 17-20.5%, type 8: 30.7-34%, type 9: 5.5-7.7%, and type 10: 0-0.3%, respectively. 2) In the single bathing group, the cells of types 6-10 which contained a lot of RNA increased remarkably in 24 hours after bathing and increased slightly in 7 days after bathing. In 30 minutes and in 3 days after bathing, howerver, the RNA contents showed the normal values. 3) In the serial bathing group, on the 3rd day of this bathing, the cells of types 6-10 tended to increase slightly and decreased on 7th and 10th days. Then, in 3 days and 7 days after the end of the serial bathing, the cells of types 6-10 proved to increase remarkably.
In Narugo spring, patients with skin disease take principally 4 different sulphursprings for their mdeical treatment, that is, “Higashi Tagano-yu”, “Nishi Tagano-yu” “Takino-yu”, and “Genzo-yu”. I made artificial springs which were very similar to the above mentioned natural sulplur springs in the chemical constituents and I studied the influence of the artificial sulphurspring particularly about the influence on capillary vessel to elucidate the effect of the above mentioned springs. The artificial sulphursprings I prepared were simple sulphurspring (0.2g SH2 in 1 liter water), including sodium bicarbonate or sulphuric acid, so the resemblance between the natural sulphursprings and the artificial ones was high in their pH. (N. B. See Table 1), Reddening of the skin caused by hydrogen sulphid (SH2) after immersion in these artificial sulphursprings was observed macroscopically and capillaroscopically. A) The reddening by sulphurspring is characteristic of the fact that it happens even at low temperature. Therefore the lowest temperature of the SH2 water that makes the skin red, or the limiting temperature of the SH2 water was examined in 34 persons on the volar surface of the forearms, and it was by far lower than the one in the case of fresh water bath. Besides its relation to the tension of autonomic nervous system, temperature of environment, temperature of the skin surface, sexuality, and the age were examined. B) The reddening by SH2 is chiefly brought about from the congestion of the capillary vessel in the skin surface, and as for its intensity, it was more remarkable in the case after immersion in the sulphurspring including sulphuric acid than in the case after immersion in the simple sulphurspring, and weak in the case of sulphurspring including sodium bicarbonate, and after the reddening the reactive ischemia was observed distinctly in the case of simple sulphurspring. C) Influence of the heat reaches more profound layer of the skin, and the temperature of the artificial sulphurspring also plays a part of the role in the reddening by SH2. Among these influences of the artificial sulphursprings a good contrast could be seen, as compared 42°C sulphurspring including sulphuric acid with 42°C sulphurspring including sodium bicarbonate. One who had taken the former bath, felt his body became comparatively cool after his bath, and on the contrary after he had taken the latter, felt comparatively warm. This process was sufficiently explained by the capillaroscopical studies on both springs. D) I experienced the fact that one, who had taken the artificial sulphurspring several times, accustomed himself to it, and his capillary became dull to SH2. E) The above facts were very instructive to treat 2 patients for roentgen ray dermatitis. Among the various hydrotherapies I practiced, the sulphurspring including sodium bicarbonate was the most effective, and I also have experienced the phenomenon of naturalization to SH2 during these treatments.