The water coming from a hot spring was differentiated into two types in regard to its freshness, i. e. “virgin” water as it gushed forth from the source of a hot spring, and “old” water as it was left standing at the room temperature for a certain period of time. To compare these two in their biological effects, experiments were undertaken mainly from the aspect of hematological findings. Two ml of these waters in sterile condition were injected to rabbits intramuscularly or intravenously, and changes in the counts of the various blood cells were examined. The results were as follows: 1. No differences were noted between the two in regard to the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin value. 2. A marked difference was noted between the two in regard to the lecocyte count both after intramuscular and intravenous injections. 3. No significant difference was noted between the two in regard to the pseudo eosinophiles and lymphocytes when injections were made intramuscularly, whereas a marked difference was observed with the intravenous route. 4. A marked difference was noted in eosinophiles between the two, either after intramuscular or intravenous injection.
Subsequent to the first report, the effects of the “virgin” and “old” hot spring waters on the function of the leucocytes were studied and the following results were obtained. 1. A significnat difference in phagocytic activity of leucocytes was noted between the two either in intramuscular or intravenous administration. 2. Mobility of leucocytes was examined only after intramuscular injection, and marked difference was noted between the two.
The time elapsing after collection of the hot spring water was made to differ, and a study was made to determine the time required for the change from “virgin” to “old”. Further, the quantity of water injected was made to vary and the relationship between the “virgin” and “old” waters was investigated. 1. The “virgin” water was found to lose characteristics 22 of 22.5 hours after collection. 2. No marked difference between the two was noted when the amount injected was 1ml, while their characteristics were observed when the injected dose varied from 2ml 50ml.
The characteristic features of measurements of axillary teuperature, mouth temperature and rectal temperature which are the most typical of clinical thermonietries are as follows: 1) In the case of the measurement of axillary temperature, it is not the type of the clinical thermometer but warmth in the axilla that determines the time required for measuring body temperature. Both a half minute thermometer and a three minute thermometer take at least ten minutes. 2) In the measurement of mouth temperature, it is important that the mouth should be kept completely shut before and during measurement. 3) In the measurement of rectal temperature, it is important that the thermometer should be inserted to the depth of 6cm at least. Based on this principle are the new models of the mercury thermometers as described hereunder: 1) Thermometer for mouth temperature: Small enough to rest under the tongue. a) General thermometer for temperature: Scale 3.5.5-40.0°C, 1/10deg. b) Thermometer for Basal Body Temperature: Scale 35.5-38.5°C, 1/10deg. 2) Thermometer for Rectal Temperature: There is a bulge about 6.0cm above the mercury bulb. Scale 35.0-42.0°C, 1/10deg. 3) Thermometer for Precision Measurement. Used for the measurement of slight fever or precise measurement of body temperature. Scale 35.0-40.0°C, 1/20deg. 4) Thermometer for External Auditory Meatus: Designed to fit in the external auditory meatus. Round in cross-section. Scale 35.0-40.0°C, 1/10deg. As stated above, the advantages of the now models of thermometers over the conventional models have been cliuicilly confirmed. Our statistics show that the average axillary temperature of 3094 Japanese in healthy condition is 36.9°C with the standard deviation of 0.34°C. According to our observation of possible influences of bath, meal and exercise over body temperature, they should be avoided for 30 minutes prior to talcing the temperature. Besides, the thermometry pertaining to basal body temperature and slight fever has been put on the index.
It has been said that hot spring water shows an aging phenomenon by which “virgin” water looses their original characters and eventually becomes “old” water. Using waters collected from Gero Hot Springs, Yuya Mineral Spring and their ground waters, effects on local subcutaneous immunity were examined in rabbits. Following the observation of development of aging phenomenon in these waters, comparative studies of “virgin” and “old” waters were made in regard to local immunity and following results were obtained. 1) Samples of three simple and one hydrogen sulphide hot springs of Gero were examined. In their virgin states, all the samples powerfully stimulated the local immunity in subcutaneous tissue. This was evidenced by the phagocytosis in the subcutaneous tissue cells. This stimulation was not exhibited by the samples in aged states. 2) Yuya Mineral Spring Water showed some stimulating effects, but practically no effect was obtained in aged condition. 3) Ground water showed no stimulating effect in either “virgin” or “old” state.
The effects of hot mineral water collected from the Gero Hot Spring, Yuya Mineral Spring and suhground water on the production of typhoid-paratyphoid agglutinins in rabbits were investigated by means of the Widal's reaction. In addition, experiments were made to see the development of aging phenomenon in these waters. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Samples of three simple and one hydrogen sulphide hot springs in Gero were examined. All of the examined samples powerfully stimulated the production of typhoidparatyphoid agglutinins in their “virgin” states, but not in aged condition. 2) Yuya. Mineral Spring Water showed some stimulating effects, but practically no effects were noted in their aged states. 3) Subground water showed no stimulating effects in either “virgin” or “old” states.
A) Following the previous report, effects of the changes in bath conditions on the percutaneous absorption of iron in the bath water were studied further. 1) Percutaneous absorption of ferric ion proved strongest at a water temperature of 42°C, weakest at 30°C, and moderate at 37°C. 2) The more the concentration of iron in bath water rose, the more increased the percutaneous absorption of iron. 3) Iron absorbed in or adhered to the skin during the bath must infiltrate into the body after the bath as the amount of Fe59 in the animal body, sacrificed 20min. after the bath, proved 2.5 times more than in the test animal killed immediately after the bath. 4) NaCl and AlCl3 which were added to the bath water containing iron chloride had no marked influence on the transition of iron into the body, while KCl CaCl2, MgCl2, Na2SO4, and NaHCO3 in the same mval% decreased more or less the infiltration of iron into the body. B) Fur of the rabbits abdomen was shaved thoroughly and a sheet of gauze soaked with various pH solution was folded into four and adhered closely to the rabbits abdomen with cellophane tape. Then radioactive iron (ca. 60μc of Fe59) was injected into the ear vein of rabbit. One hour after the application the gauze was taken and ignited to ashes completely in porcelain crucible at 500°C. The ash was dissolved in hydrochloric acid solution, transferred into a stainless plate, neutralized by ammoniac solution, methylred as indicator. Then precipitate was dried gradually. Radioactivity of the precipitate was measured with Lauritsen's electroscope and following results were obtained. 1) Percutaneous elimination of radioactive iron from the body proved strongest under the condition in which the skin of the animal was wetted in acid solution, weakest in the condition of alkaline solution and moderate in the condition of neutral solution. Addition of sodium chloride into the water, which drenched the gauze to wet the skin, promoted the percutaneous excretion of iron front the body. 2) Percutaneous elimination of iron injected intravenously became less and less as time passed. C) Mice were bathed in natural or artificial hot spring waters once daily for two weeks at a temperature of 37°C for ten minutes to study the effect of a series of baths on the absorption of iron from the digestive tract. Radioactive iron was dissolved in 1/100 normal solution of hydrochloric acid as ferric chloride. One tenth ml of this solution contained 5 microcuries of Fe59. It was mixed with 0.05-0.15ml of test solutions and then administered to mice with stomach tube made by Polyethylen. The mice were killed ninety minutes after the administration of the labelled iron solution. Oesophagus. stomach and all the intestine were removed in order to exclude the contamination of Fe59 still not absorbed from the digestive tract. All the remaining body was ignited to 600°C, then dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Iron was precipitated by the same method as described above and dried gradually. The radioactivity of the precipitate was measured with Lauritsen's electroscope and following results were obtained. 1) Iron absorption from the digestive tract was promoted by the addition of copper, and/or vitunine C in the test solution. 2) Average iron absorption from the digestive tract wits decreased by the serial thermal baths in Ikaho Hot Spring (an iron containing calcium sulphate water), in Kamimoku Hot Spring (a muriated calcium sulphate water), and in plain water, while the serial baths in sodium chloride or ferric chloride solution showed rather an increase. But these differences proved not significant.