The spider species name Pelecopsis montana Seo 2018 (Linyphiidae) is preoccupied and requires a replacement name. We establish herein the necessary replacement nomen, namely: Pelecopsis seoi nom. nov. The homonymy of the recently synonymized genus name Collis Seo 2018 (Linyphiidae) and the possible homonymy of Hahnia montana Seo 2017 (Hahniidae) in the near future are also briefly discussed.
The species Neobisium (Neobisium) vilcekii Krumpál 1983 is redescribed and illustrated based on the adult specimens collected from Caucasian region of Russia. In addition, a new size range, a new description of the females and some morphological and minor morphometric variations within the species are provided.
Scorpions can adopt different reproductive strategies (e.g., sexual or parthenogenesis) depending on the environmental conditions. In this study, we described the courtship repertoire of the parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus stigmurus, a species with inconspicuous sexual populations distributed throughout northeastern Brazil. Specimens of both sexes (10 males, 10 females) were obtained from field expeditions in three locations in northeastern Brazil and were paired under laboratory conditions in an intrapopulation design. All observations were conducted at night using red light positioned above an experimental arena. From the 10 courtship interactions observed in this study, only one pair successfully completed the reproductive repertoire that included the insemination process. The incomplete interactions were abruptly terminated by the females immediately after deposition of the spermatophore. Overall, the reproductive repertoire of T. stigmurus was similar to that of other scorpions, especially its congeners, possibly because this reproductive behavior emerged at a basal point in the evolution of scorpions. The acquisition of new insights into the reproductive biology of different scorpion species may improve the theoretical background for applications ranging from evolutionary biology to public health strategies.
Araneus is a large genus containing many species with various features, and phylogenetic analysis has revealed it to be a polyphyletic group. It has been proposed that nine new genera should be established independently from Araneus. One example is a group that includes Araneus mitificus (Simon 1886) and Araneus praesignis (L. Koch 1872). In this study, we examined specimens from several species that are morphologically similar to them, and confirmed their close relationship by phylogenetic analysis using the data of five genes. All targeted species were united in a monophyletic clade, comprising two groups in detail. The epigynes and male palps of the species in these two groups were clearly distinguishable; therefore, we concluded that they should be recognized as two independent genera. Consequently, we describe two new genera, Aoaraneus n. gen. and Bijoaraneus n. gen. Additionally, previously identified Japanese Araneus mitificus specimens were reexamined and concluded to be misidentified. It is described as a new species under the name Bijoaraneus komachi n. sp. in this study.
We report the first instance of ontogenetic variation in web-decorating behaviour among conspecific populations of a spider. Small juveniles of Argiope appensa frequently spin discoid decorations in the Philippines, but only rarely do so in the Mariana Islands of Micronesia. Because discoid decorations have a defensive function, we suggest that natural selection against their main predators, araneophagic wasps, diverse in the Philippines but poorly represented in the Marianas, may be driving this difference in decoration frequency. Alternatively, because there can be a trade-off between defense through decorating and prey capture success, the cost of discoid decorations may be higher in the Marianas because of differences in prey-community structure.
In this work, Pseudofluda palachiyaxa n. sp. found in Chaco, Argentina, is described and illustrated. In addition, new drawings of the previously described species of the genus Pseudofluda, distribution maps, and a habitat photograph are included.
Three new genera of the family Phrurolithidae, Pennalithus n. gen., Corealithus n. gen. and Labialithus n. gen., are described, and Pennalithus pennatus (Yaginuma 1967) n. comb., Corealithus coreanus (Paik 1991) n. comb. and Labialithus labialis (Paik 1991) n. comb. are respectively designated as type species. In addition to the above type species, four new combinations are proposed: Pennalithus splendidus (Song & Zheng 1992) n. comb., P. palgongensis (Seo 1988) n. comb., Corealithus subnigerus (Fu, Chen & Zhang 2016) n. comb. and Labialithus lindemanni (Marusik, Omelko & Koponen 2020) n. comb. The above five species of Pennalithus and Corealithus are transferred from Otacilia Thorell 1897, and two species of Labialithus are from Phrurolithus C. L. Koch 1839. A new species, Pennalithus suguroi n. sp., is described, and Phrurolithus pennatoides Seo 2018 is treated as a junior synonym of Pennalithus splendidus.
Pandiculation within spiders has only recently been discovered - the first record of this habit
among Protostomia – and it has only been demonstrated in one species (Cyclosa argenteoalba). We report here four further araneoid species i.e. Argiope bruennichi, Cyrtophora ikomosanensis, Trichonephila clavata (all Araneidae), and Nihonhimea japonica (Theridiidae) exhibiting pandiculation in or on their own webs. These records suggest that pandiculation is widely distributed at least among the superfamily Araneoidea, members of which generally construct aerial webs and wait in ambush for a long period.