Journal of Cookery Science of Japan
Online ISSN : 2186-5787
Print ISSN : 1341-1535
ISSN-L : 1341-1535
Volume 31 , Issue 4
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 261
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Yohichi Fukal, Tsunetomo Matsuzawa
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 262-268
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For 14 samples of 7 varieties of glutinous rice produced inside and outside of Nagano Prefecture in 1996, their processing suitablities for mochi were evaluated by measuring the physicochemical properties.
    ( 1 ) In order to investigate the differences among the varieties and among the producing districts the physical and chemical properties of rice samples were determined by measuring the following 10items i. e., moisture content, protein content, colour tone (Lab), blue value, water absorption characteristics, free fatty acid content, hardness of mochi dough, Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA), photopastegraphy and α-amylase activity.
    ( 2 ) No significant correlation (p>0.05) between the accumulated ripening temperature and the hardness of mochi dough was observed among the varieties and among the producing districts.
    ( 3 ) The hardness and lightness of mochi dough, protein content, the temperature of gelatinization and the temperature of maximum viscosity have great influence on the processing suitability. These five items of 7 varieties of glutinous rice were evaluated using the radar chart and the significance test.
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  • Tokumitsu Okamura, Saeko Yokomizo, Kazue Nakamura, Shigeru Otsuka
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 269-273
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Niraki is the general term for salted preserves described in some ancient records including the “Engi-Shiki”, the Laws and Regulations issued in A. D.908. Together with salt, smashed bark of elm was added as an indispensable ingredient for preparing niraki. Presently, the purpose of its addition is not known.
    Niraki of daikon, Japanese radish, was prepared according to the recipe described in the ancient references by using the smashed barks of aki-nire,, or autumn elm (Ulmus Parvifolia) and haru-nire, or spring elm (Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica) and subjected to chemical analysis and bacterial tests. It was found that the concentration of glutamic acid in the acid hydrolyzate of the aki-nire-niraki, haru-nire-niraki and the control (salted preserves without the powdered barks) were about 3,8 and 5 times greater than those without the acid hydrolysis, respectively. A greater amount of glutamic acid, the well-known umami substance, was found in aki-nire niraki than in haru-nire niraki.
    The water-soluble acetone extract of aki-nire inhibited the growth of B. subtilis and E. coli. It is suggested that the elm bark powder plays an antiseptic role in the salted preserves.
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  • Asuka Tajiri, Osamu Kimura, Yasuhiko Shiinoki
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 274-280
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The consumption of low-fat spread, which contains more water and less fat is significantly increasing in recent days compared with traditional butter and margarine. For processing low-fat spread, it is necessary to use a certain amount of emulsifiers and stabilizers. However, these additives are konwn to considerably affect the properties such as texture, spreadability and flavor release, which were required for the final products. In particular, the texture and spreadability are most easily deteriorated by addition of the additives, althogh the mechanism has not been fully understood. It is necessary to clarify the relation between the additives and the rheological properties of fat spread.
    The effects of the composition on the rheological properties of fat spread were investigated. The mouthfeel was evaluated with temperature sweeps (5-50°C) of the storage modulus G', while the spreadability was with flow curves (0-100s-1). As a standard sample, we prepared a commercial spread which contained 70% fat and emulsifiers without stabilizer. This sample exhibited lower G'around inside temperatures of mouth and a rapid decrease in the shear stress with increasing shear rate. By contrast, other low-fat spreads, which had lower fat contents, emulsifiers and a stabilizer, showed higher G' and no decrease with increasing shear rate. It was also found that the type of the emulsifiers markedly changed the shape of flow curves at low shear rates and that the solid fat content shifted the curve vertically. These results suggest that appropriate selection of the fat content, the solid fat content and the type of emulsifiers enables us to control the rheological properties of fat spread.
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  • Ryo Toyama, Shinichi Taneya
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 281-288
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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    Changes in texture of reimen (korean noodle) during storage and after heating process were investigated by means of one bite procedure of tensipresser. Breaking stress and strain of raw reimen were decreased during storage, while 50% deformation stress was increased. These changes occurred rapidly in an initial stage for 3 days, and then continued gradually after the initial changes. Breaking stress and strain of reimen after cooking were decreased rapidly under the large deformation, but the stress for the slight deformation, e. g.50% deformation, were decreased gradually. These changes in deformation stress pattern was well described by the index of pliability, and the ratio of breaking stress to the stress in 50% deformation. The heating process for packed raw reimen did not much affect to the texture. When it was cooked, however the higher temperature at heating process brought about the higher 50% deformation stress and the lower breaking stress, pliability, breaking strain and the ratio of breaking stress to 50% deformation stress. The reimen containing 60% potato starch had lower 50% deformation stress, and higher the other index except for breaking strain, compared to the reimen containing 40% potato starch. From these results, it was found that the texture of reimen could be estimated by analyzing the pattern of pressing deformation stress.
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  • Toshie Tsuda, Tomoko Hasumi
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 289-292
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The determination of nucleotides in foodstuffs has been usually undertaken by the absorption spectrochemical analysis in an ultraviolet region after the separation of these compounds by ion exchange chromatography. In this study, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC)was applied for this determination.
    MECC was used to separate some nucleotides (adenosine-5'-triphosphate, adenosine-5'-diphosphate, adenosine-5'-mono-phosphate, inosine-5'-monophosphate, inosine and hypoxanthine)contained in the muscle of fish, and it became clear that this method was useful not only for the separation of these compounds but also for rapid determination (in less than 45 min). Nucleotides in fish muscle were extracted with 10% perchloric acid.
    In conclusion, MECC is a rapid and efficient technique for resolution of nucleotides from fish muscle. This measurement can be used to determine the nucleotides of fish.
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  • Yukiko Yamamoto, Atsuko Tomimori
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 293-298
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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    Chicken-bone soup stocks were prepared by normal-pressure cooking (100°C) for 30,60 or 180 min, or by high-pressure cooking(115 or 120°C) for 10 or 30 min. The composition, clarity, viscosity, and sensory evaluation of them were measured. Composition of commercial instant soups was also measured. Total solid extracts, crude protein, collagen were increased as the cooking time and temperature increased, and they were very high in soup stocks cooked at 100°C for 180 min and at 120°C for 30 min. The amounts of 5'-AMP,5'-IMP and glutamic acid were lower in soup stocks cooked at 120°C for 30 min than in those cooked at100°C for 180 min. The concentration of almost all the amino acids in soup stock of 120°C for 30 min was the same level as that in soup stock of 100°C for 180 min. Total solid extacts in commercial instant soups were very high, suggesting high amounts of salt and other minerals. One of the commercial instant soups contained very high amount of 5'-IMP and glutamic acid. The viscosity of soup stocks was correlated positively with the amount of collagen. The sensory evaluation showed that chicken-bone-like flavour was stronger in high-pressure soup stocks (120°C for 30 min) than in normal-pressure soup stocks (100°C for 60 or 180 min), and that overall palatability was not improved by the high-pressure cooking.
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  • Yasuko Kainuma
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 299-305
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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    Various kinds of fertilizers are applied in paddy-fields to facilitate the growth of rice and to improve the productivity. This report is on the study about the relations between the variety of used fertilizers and the cooking properties or the palatability of rice. Nine combinations (No.1∼No.9)of fertilizer elements were subjected to the application test. The control group (No.7) consisted of well-balanced fertilizer elements.
    The results are as follows.
    1) The group of lack of nitrogen (No.3) showed high yield rate of milling and water absorption of milled rice. And also it liquated low content of total sugar in the first step of boiling. The cooked rice of this group had less hardness, greater stickiness, and it was shown to be more preferred than that of control group significantly.
    2) The group of lack of phosphoric acid (No.4) showed low yield rate of milling and high content of total sugar in remaining liquid at first step of boiling. The cooked rice of this group had greater hardness, less stickiness, and it was evaluate as of lower taste than that of control group significantly
    3) There were no remarkable differences between the group of other fertilizer elements except No.3, No.4 and control group. And the palatability of rice that cultivated with the organic fertilizer (compost) could not be improved.
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  • Koichi Sugita, Miki Imai, Teruo Yamashita
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 306-313
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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    The enlightening articles about the theoretical cookery were extracted from No.1 to 37 issues of magazine “HOCHO AMBAI” which was founded in 1889. The contents of those articles were analyzed from a viewpoint of cookery science in search for the origin modern science of cookery.
    These extracted cases can be roughly classified into the following five groups, and as a result of the research work, the conception was found to be connected with the modern science of cookery.
    ( 1 ) Necessity of the theoretical approach to cooking and research on the principle of cooking technique.
    ( 2 ) Aim at the education of cooking for females, and ascertaining that cooking is essential for all women not only as helper's housework.
    ( 3 ) Study on the relationship between human nutrition and food analysis, and necessity of the changes of food components in the process of cooking.
    ( 4 ) Appreciating the characteristics of foods as materials for various cooking.
    ( 5 ) The research group was organized by professional cooks to study and popularize the knowledge of the cooking.
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  • Kiyohito Nakashima, Hideo Katsukawa, Yuzo Ninomiya
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 314-320
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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  • Wataru Hashimoto, Sachiko Ogawa, Keiko Momma, Kousaku Murata
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 321-326
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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  • Kazuhiro Abe
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 327-335
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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  • Toshiaki Kimura
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 336-340
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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  • Atsuko Higo, Minase Hirano
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 341-345
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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  • Yasuyo Yasuhara
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 346-350
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 351-355
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 356-360
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1998 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 361-364
    Published: November 20, 1998
    Released: April 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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