Japanese radish rice cake (Daikon-mochi) and potato rice cake were prepared from mashed Japanese radish and potato, respectively, mixed into a dough containing 11 different cereal flours. Then, one of two cooking methods was used to produce the finished cakes, namely, pan-frying, or by microwaving followed by pan-frying. The radish and potato cakes prepared using rice flour and soft wheat flour were of the best quality, whereas cakes prepared using Job's tears, foxtail millet, and rye flour were inferior in terms of all measured attributes such as elasticity of the dough, cooking score, taste and flavor. However, the quality scores of some of the Japanese radish rice cakes were improved by the two-step cooking method, which allowed enhanced gelatinization of the starch in a finished cake. Sensory scores for the cakes were correlated with the physical properties of their dough, and with the extent of starch gelatinization.
The aroma concentrates prepared from soy sauce and a seasoning consisting of soy sauce, mirin, and sugar were compared in order to elucidate the qualitative changes in the aroma and the compounds that contribute to the changes in seasoning by cooking. Gas chromatography-Olfactometry analysis of the aroma concentrates showed that the number of aroma compounds in the seasoning increased, while that in soy sauce decreased upon cooking. Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis indicated that HEMF (4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone), with a caramel-like aroma, had the highest Flavor Dilution factor (FDf) in both the seasoning and soy sauce before cooking. After cooking, the FDf of HEMF in soy sauce reduced, while that in seasoning remained unchanged. The number of aroma compounds in the seasoning containing glucose solution instead of mirin increased, and the FDf of HEMF in this seasoning did not change, while that of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone increased after cooking. This study suggested that mirin, which contains a high concentration of glucose, significantly contributed to the formation of aroma compounds in the seasoning during cooking.
The flavour release properties of meals containing commercial thickeners were investigated, with a view to improving the quality of life of people with masticating and swallowing difficulties. Specifically, wasabi (horseradish) and niboshi (dried anchovies), which are savoury and aromatic foods, were used, and the release of aromas upon addition of commercial thickeners derived from xanthan gum and agar was investigated. The aromas were measured comprehensively using an electronic nose as well as by sensory evaluation. The amounts of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is the main flavour component of wasabi, were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Addition of a commercial thickener reduced the aroma of the food as a whole; this change in aromatic quality was marked for the sample containing wasabi, and the amount of AITC released was significantly decreased. Conversely, upon exposure to compressive stress, such as when chewing, the smell of the food as a whole became stronger and the amount of AITC released tended to increase. Therefore, we conclude that the smell preserved within the food by addition of a commercial thickener is again released upon chewing the food.
Taking into consideration the cooking conditions and the long preparation time required in the food services industry, we examined changes in glucosinolate (GSL) content after cutting Brassicaceae vegetables. No significant reduction in GSL content was observed for up to 3 h at 5°C after broccoli was cut into small pieces, cabbage was cut into 5×5 cm pieces, watercress was cut into 4-cm-long pieces, and Japanese radish was cut into 5-cm-thick butterfly-form pieces with or without peeling. However, GSL content in vegetables declined with increasing tissue destruction. These results suggest that the significant decrease in total GSL content after cutting and storing the vegetables at 5°C is an unavoidable phenomenon. To increase GSL intake, it is desirable to cut Brassicaceae vegetables into certain sizes. In addition, it is necessary to cut Brassicaceae vegetables into small pieces immediately before eating them.
To investigate the cohesive efficacy of thickener solutions with minute gels, the relationship between the physical properties of thickener solutions and the physical properties and sensory characteristics of sol-gel mixed samples was examined. Different thickener solutions having similar viscosities at a shear rate of 50 s−1 were prepared with starch, sodium alginate, and two kinds of thickening agents: major ingredients of guar gum and xanthan, and grated yam. Dynamic viscoelasticity measurements showed that the storage modulus (G′) values of solutions containing xanthan and grated yam were higher than those of the other solutions. The G′ and yield stress of the solutions were higher, making the sol-gel mixed samples more cohesive in the mouth.
We examined whether mushrooms in a half-dried state are efficiently ingested. Shiitake, Shimeji, and Maitake (Hen of the Woods) mushroom samples were initially half-dried under various conditions (sun drying; machine drying) and then blanched in boiling water. Comparison of dried and non-dried mushrooms showed that the weight and apparent surface area of dried samples after blanching were significantly decreased compared with non-dried samples. The amount of free amino acids increased in the Maitake samples. Furthermore, in machine-dried Maitake samples, bitter-tasting free amino acids increased, and so did the amount of vitamin D2 in sun-dried Maitake samples. The half-dried Shiitake and Maitake samples showed relatively high levels of antioxidant activity. We concluded that for half-dried mushroom samples blanched in boiling water, sun-drying treatment may be preferable.
We assessed textural properties and performed sensory evaluation of four kinds of meal forms of meat (layered meat, minced meat, minced meat enveloped with thickening agent, and meat jelly), which were generally served in elderly care facilities, to study the ease of eating and favorability for the elderly. The minced meat was shown to be “easy to scatter” in comparison with layered meat, but significant differences were not found in “hardness,” “ease of swallowing,” and “feelings of residual food.” These results suggest that minced meat, which is frequently served, is not always the easiest form to eat as compared with the other forms. Meat jelly was evaluated as “difficult to scatter,” “easy to swallow,” and “little feeling of remaining” compared with the other samples, but was evaluated as most undesirable in preference appraisal. In addition, minced meat enveloped with thickening agent, which is harder than meat jelly, was preferred in the elderly. Thus, these results show that favorability and ease of eating do not always coincide. For the elderly, it is desirable to offer a meal of a hardness suitable for the person, depending on one's eating preferences and deglutition function.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy sauce on the cooking properties and palatability of flavor-grilled fish, a dish seasoned with soy sauce. Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) was marinated in several seasoning formulations containing different proportions of soy sauce and NaCl content, and oven grilled at 250°C. The soy sauce proportion had no effect on cooking yield at the standard formulation of 5.2% (w/w) NaCl. However, with a soy sauce proportion of 25% or less, the palatability of the grilled fish was reduced. The extent of fishy odor was significantly different between the standard formulation and the formulation without soy sauce at 0.5h, indicating the utility of all soy sauce proportions in a short-term marinade. When the NaCl content in the seasoning was 2.6% (w/w) or less, the palatability was reduced, while optimal palatability was obtained with a NaCl content of at least 3.9% (w/w).
The objective of this study was to demonstrate Japanese dietary customs surrounding the consumption of shark meat by comparing them with those related to the consumption of stingray, as well as by examining the preparation methods and the regions where these two fish are eaten in modern and post-modern times. In modern times, shark meat was consumed primarily in the Tohoku region (northern Honshu), whereas the predominant areas of stingray consumption were the Chugoku region (western Honshu) and Shikoku Island. Although shark preparation methods have grown more diverse through the ages, raw or simmered shark remain the most popular cuisines. Conversely, stingray is typically eaten as a simmered dish. Thus, the cooking methods used for preparing these two types of fish slightly differ. Since both fish contain urea, they can be preserved for a long duration. This, as well as the various forms of preparation available, and the fact that the fish can be eaten raw in mountainous areas, are the reasons for the continued tradition of consuming shark on special occasions.