The purpose of this study is to create an aroma wheel to evaluate the aroma of bread and to combine the colour-coded evaluation results with the sensory evaluation of its aroma, thus using the aroma wheel to visually indicate the aroma of bread.
We prepared different types of bread by mixing five kinds of fermentation liquids in different ways and measured the specific volume and fermentation time for each one. The specific volume of the bread did not decrease with addition of the fermented liquid. We were able to evaluate the aroma of the bread using the aroma wheel with 53 terms. The aroma of normal bread was expressed as orange and yellow, while that of bread prepared with the addition of fermented hop was expressed as green. The package colour was selected such that it visually indicated the type of aroma described with the analysis panel.
We also visually indicated the aroma of sourdough bread using terms and colour. Additionally, we proposed a means of clearly conveying to consumers the aroma of the particular type of bread.
This study aimed to investigate the thermal stability of characteristic chemicals in manuka honey during high-temperature heating and propose a cooking method that suppresses the reduction of one antibacterial ingredient, methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO was significantly decreased to approximately 12% by heating at 150°C for 10 min, similar to candy preparation. 2'-methoxyacetophenone, a marker for manuka honey authenticity developed by the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, was also significantly reduced when heated for 10 min. We also compared the stability of these chemicals at various temperatures for 10 min. MGO was identified as stable up to 90°C, but significantly reduced over 100°C. The presence of sugar and volatilization of MGO had little effect on MGO reduction. Our data suggest that heating processed foods containing manuka honey at a high temperature of 120°C or more were expected to significantly decrease MGO in the final product compared to the original quantity. Additionally, lowering the processing temperature and shortening the heating time may effectively suppress the reduction of MGO.