Changes in the antioxidative activities and contents of sesame lignans and polar components, and in free amino acids of two kinds of sesame seed during germination were investigated. Gold sesame (Turkey), which is marketed as germination sesame, and gomazou, which contains large amounts of sesamin and sesamolin, were used. The sesamin and sesamolin contents of the two kinds of sesame seed during germination didn't decrease by any notable extent, and it is presumed that their physiological functions were retained. The contents of polar components in gold sesame increased during the first 24 hours of germination, but suddenly decreased 48 hours later. Although their contents in gomazou also decreased with germination, more remained than in gold sesame. It is presumed that the changes in DPPH radical-scavenging and SOD activities of both types of sesame seed during germination were both correlated with change in polar components. The organoleptic evaluation produced the highest score for the germinated gold sesame, but the taste score was not correlated with the content of free amino acids. GABA was found to increase during the germination of gomazou.
Kazuyo Kono Eriko Kiyoura Midori Kasai Keiko Hatae The uses and styles of serving bonito during the first, middle and latter Edo periods were studied in cookery books written during those periods. Bonito cuisine was categorized into raw and heated, and processed bonito was also classified as dried bonito and dried bonito soup stocks. It has been reported that bonito has been eaten since the Jyoumon period, and this study, confirmed that eating raw bonito remained popular through the Edo period. The main cooking method used was boiling rather than roasting. Dried bonito was widely used as garnishing for sashimi, in fish and shellfish soup, and for cooked rice during the Edo period. The use of dried bonito in soup stock was believed to have started in the 16 th century, although, the findings from this study show that it could be traced back to the 13th century, long before the Edo period. Dried bonito soup stock was added to “iri-sake” which was used as a sauce for serving raw fish and also used to enhance the taste of many other dishes during the Edo period.
Curing skipjack meat in miso (called misodzuke-skipjack) is an effective method for preserving and improving the quality. Changes in the salt concentration and water activity value in skipjack meat were examined at different times during curing in miso. The numbers of general bacteria and psychrotrophic bacteria in the skipjack meat and miso used for curing were counted at different times during the curing period. The curing time for the most appropriate texture was determined. And the pro elonged preservation time and muscle condition of the cured skipjack were investigated by optical microscopy and a sensory test. Misodzuke-skipjack cured for 10 days was evaluated to have the best condition from the parameters applied in the sensory test. There was no detectable increase in the numbers of general and psychrotrophic bacteria during 30 days of curing. To investigate further proelongation of the storage period, the miso was removed from the misodzuke-skipjack for 10 days, and the skipjack was frozen for 7 days at -20°C. The muscle of the frozen skipjack was then subjected to optical microscopy in comparison with the muscle of the misodzuke-skipjack for 10 days. The structure of the frozen muscle was preserved as well as the muscle of the misodzuke-skipjack. There were no notable differences in various aspects of the taste between the frozen and unfrozen misodzuke-skipjack. These results demonstrate that frozen storage after removing the miso from the misodzuke-skipjack for 10 days was effective for prolonging the preservation time.
Takehiro Ishida Hiroshi Fukui Hideki Matsuda Teruyoshi Matoba The anti-oxidative effect of mirin on whole sardines and sardine fish-balls was investigated during thermalcooking. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of both after cooking with mirin were lower than those cookedwith mirin-like seasoning or sugar. The TBA values after cooking with mirin or ethanol- eliminated mirin were also lower than those cooked withethanol or water. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the whole sardine, its broth and itsfish-ball after thermal cooking with mirin were all higher than those cooked with mirin-like seasoning or sugar.
We investigated the anti-oxidative effect of mirin on frozen-stored fish and meat products after thermal cooking. Eicosapentaenoic acid and oleic acid were incubated at 40°C for 48 hr in the presence of several types of seasoning. The peroxide values (POVs) of both fatty acids after incubation were lower in the presence of mirin than those POVs in the presence of mirin-like seasoning or sugar. The sardine, yellowtail, pork and beef products after thermal cooking with several types of seasoning were stored at -30°C for 24 weeks. POVs after storing these products cooked with mirin were lower than those with cooked mirin-like seasoning or sugar.
Keiko Nagao Noriko Kita Rika Amano Mayumi Morita Midori Kasai Keiko Hatae“Covered food cooking” is a parcel cooking method in which meat or fish is usually covered with Japanese paper or salt. We evaluated wheat flour dough, pie dough, mashed potato, misogama (miso and flour) and shiogama (salt and egg white) for food parcel wrapping in this study. The thermal diffusivity (α) of each sample was calculated from measurements of the thermal conductivity (λ), heat capacity (c) and density (ρ). The internal temperature along one axis was measured during heating, and the heat retardation time was calculated. The various materials used for covered food cooking were then studied for their properties. Shiogama had the highest thermal conductivity, being followed by mashed potato, wheat flour dough, misogama and pie dough in that order. The retardation time τ(χ), an index of heating rate, tended to follow the order of thermal conductivity for the covering materials. A high correlation was seen between 1/τ(χ) and thermal diffusivity(α). The retardation time in cooling made shiogama easy to heat and easy to cool, so it could not retain the heating effect. Misogama, wheat flour dough and pie dough retained the heating effect much better than shiogama.
The chemical properties of frying oil were compared using two types of pan with and without a coating of titanium dioxide (powder impact plating titanium). The average temperatures of the frying oil in the stainless steelpans (A) were approximately 1°C higher than those in the aluminum-pans (B). The oil absorption rate (7.6-7.9%), dehydration rate (37.5-39.0%) and moisture contents (53.6-54.4%) of the fried potato were not different between the same type of frying pan with or without the coating, although the weight decrease of the fried potato was significantly higher with the coating than without. The carbonyl value (COV), p-anisidin value (ANV), acid value (AV), peroxide value (POV) and polar compounds (PC) increased with the number of uses of the frying oil. ANV of the coated B pan was lower than that without the coating up to 12 times of frying. These results suggest that the aluminum-pan coated with titanium dioxide might have contributed to the inhibitory effect on oxidation of the frying oil. The number of uses negatively correlated with the dehydration rate, whereas the oil absorption rate positively correlated with the dehydration rate, suggesting that the rate of exchange from water to oil inside the fried potato decreased with the number of uses which caused the oily taste of the fried materials.
Karukan is a traditional Japanese steamed cake that is eaten by all ages. The application of bean-curd lees, a by-product of tofu manufacturing process, and soy milk to Karukan was investigated as potential sources of calcium and dietary fiber. Ten different combinations of yamanoimo (Y), egg white (E) and soy milk (T) making up 50% of the total ingredients were determined according to the Scheffe simple lattice design model for a three-component system. Four different combinations of rice flour (R) and bean-curd lees (O) making up 30% of the total ingredients were applied (25/5,20/10,15/15 and 10/20), the balance being made up of 15% sugar,2% Chinese lemon juice and 3% water. Karukan samples made from the 40 ingredient combinations were evaluated by objective means, i. e., cake volume, whiteness and rheological properties, and sensory means. The highest-rated Karukan sample was that made from the Y: E: T: R: O combination of 8: 20: 22: 15: 15.