The kitchen drain is a major contributor to water pollution in daily life. This study clarifies the effect of the eco-cooking method on reducing water pollution. A Japanese food model menu was used to compare the water pollution level by measuring the amount of water used, COD, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen resulting from preparing the menu by the normal cooking method and the eco-cooking method. The amount of water used, COD, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen were respectively reduced to 86%, 82%, 80% and 85% by using the eco-cooking method. The effect on the reduction was confirmed in each process of cooking, washing utensils, and washing dishes. Four factors were particularly effective for reducing water pollution: using a bowl for washing, using no-wash rice, wiping off dirt from ingredients, and using the proper quantity of detergent. The effect was confirmed by using a different menu.
Selenium, an essential trace element, affects disease prevention and health promotion activity, particularly controlling the occurrence and metastasis of cancer. We measured the selenium content in processed soybean food by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. Measurement conditions were validated by analysis of the standard reference material, rice flour NIST-SRM 1568 a. When the actual measurement value, 38.2±1.7 μg/100 g, was compared to the certified value for standard reference, 38.0±4.0 μg/100 g, we concluded that measurement conditions were reasonable. When we measured the selenium content in 41 different varieties of tofu, we found that the selenium content in tofu made from domestic soybeans was lower than those in tofu made from Canadian and American soybeans. We found similar results from the measurement of the selenium content in kinako. The selenium content of baked kinako made from American soybeans was higher than that of powder made from Japanese soybeans. We concluded that selenium content measurement in processed soybean foods can be used to distinguish domestic products from foreign products.
The effects of shared cooking within the living unit of a nursing home for elderly with independent living unit were investigated in respect of the resident's dietary behavior, state of nutrition and mental health, when compared these parameters with centralized cooking. The number of residential subjects was 39 (3 males and 36 females with an average age of 84.4±6.9 years). A questionnaire study about the states of each resident was made by individually interviewing the care staff (8 persons) and cooking staff (5 persons) who were working there before introducing cooking within the living unit. Case records of the residents by a registered dietitian were also analyzed. The quality of life of the residents was investigated by using the modified multi-dimensional observation scale for elderly subjects (MOSE). Placing the kitchen in the unit increased conversation among the residents and with the cooking staff through resident participation while preparing meals. This improved dietary behavior, nutritional state, the ability of verbal communication and the resident's expression of their will. The shared activity in daily cooking within the living unit between the residents and cooking staff had positive effects on the residents and resulted in better services to increase the quality of life of the residents.
Shimi-Mochi is a preserved food that has been eaten as daily food since the Kamakura era, especially in the Tohoku area. The temperature-time characteristics of the internal part of traditional Shimi-Mochi were measured every 60 sec during the process of freeze drying. The results show that the temperature range for producing Shimi-Mochi was extremely limited and that the process of drying with repeated freezing and thawing was indispensable. Measurements were taken of the weight, volume and textural characteristics, an analysis was made of the internal structural image, and a sensory evaluation of traditional Shimi-Mochi was conducted, and the results were compared with those for common mochi. Many vacant spaces were revealed in the internal structure of Shimi-Mochi, and numerical values showed that the texture after cooking was retained with storage time.
Hamburger steaks were baked at a low temperature (150°C) and high temperature (250°C) in a domestic superheated steam oven or conventional oven to compare the features of the products cooked with superheated steam. The hamburger steak samples were baked until the minimum internal temperature had reached 75°C. The rate of temperature rise during the initial stage of heating was rapid in the superheated steam oven when baking at both 150°C and 250°C. The weights of the product and the meat juice expressed from the inside were not affected by the baking temperature. Sensory test results showed that the hamburger steak baked at 150°C was lighter in color (p<0.001), weaker in savory aroma (p<0.01), and lower in overall score (p<0.01) than when baked at 250°C. However, the scores for juiciness and oiliness were similar at both temperatures. Low-temperature heating with superheated steam was thus suitable for cooking requiring a long heating time.
Endive is a bitter Asteraceae vegetable and contains lactucopicrin-15-oxalate (LO) and a very small amount of lactucopicrin (L). The bitterness of L was much stronger than that of LO. LO was decomposed to L under neutral and weakly alkaline conditions, while the production of L was depressed under weakly acidic conditions. Organoleptic tests while eating endive leaves showed that the bitterness was more strongly felt during mastication and could be alleviated by using an acidic dressing. It is considered that L (the bitter compound) was produced from LO (the less bitter compound) when mixing the leaves with saliva in the oral cavity and that the production of L was inhibited by the acid contained in the dressing.
This study was performed to clarify structural changes in collagen, changes in ASC, PSC and ISC contents, caused by moist heating for a prolonged period, and accompanying changes in lipid content, using kakuni pork as a sample. In addition, the influence of plant protease on these contents was also examined. Regarding collagen content, no ISC was present, ASC content was significantly increased, and PSC content was significantly decreased after steaming. In the subsequent simmering process, the decrease in PSC content was not significant. When ginger juice or kiwifruit juice was added, no difference was noted in collagen content after steaming compared to that of the control. In the subsequent simmering process, PSC content decreased; a significant reduction was observed compared to the control when kiwifruit juice was added. This PSC content reduction in the simmering process may have resulted from protease action on the resultant collagen without globular domains during pre-treatment and heat-denatured regions of collagen in the early steaming phase. Fat and cholesterol decreased after cooking in all conditions. The contents were significantly reduced when kiwifruit juice was added compared to those of the control. These findings suggest that although heating weakens collagen fibers in pork chunks during cooking, a large amount of lipid is retained. The addition of kiwifruit juice further weakens the collagen fibers, increasing the dissolution of fat and cholesterol.
The physical properties, sensory characteristics and power consumption were evaluated to elucidate the effect of steaming time on the thermal energy saving and palatability of noodles supplemented with cassava starch. Noodles supplemented with 6% cassava starch and noodles prepared w ith wheat flour were used. Shortening the boiling time from 10 minutes to 3 minutes and then holding reduced the electrical energy consumption by 32% without any deterioration of palatability. Noodles supplemented with cassava starch that had been boiled for 3 minutes and then steamed for 6 minutes were evaluated as the best in respect of the gumminess. The steaming time more strongly affected the palatability of the noodles than the supplementation with cassava starch when comparing with the noodles prepared from wheat flour. The noodles supplemented with cassava starch became softer with increasing steaming time, whereas there was no further softening of the noodles prepared from wheat after halfway through the steaming period. The results show that steaming the noodles supplemented with cassava starch reduced the thermal energy required and that the texture depended on the steaming time.