A Japanese cooking menu was designed with higher antioxidative activity than an ordinary cooking menu by changing the cooking materials and methods. The antioxidative activity was measured by using the chemiluminescence method. The main entrée was Japanese chicken meatloaf; although the antioxidative activity when heated by a microwave oven was lower than that before cooking, it was higher than that by the other cooking conditions tested. The dish dinner was fried burdock; the antioxidative activity after an immersion treatment was lower than that without the treatment. Miso soup made with the combination of bonito soup stock, red miso paste and eggplant had the highest antioxidative activity of all the miso soups tested. We therefore propose a Japanese cooking menu with improved antioxidative activity containing Japanese chicken meatloaf heated by microwave, fried burdock without an immersion treatment, brown rice, spinach with tofu, and miso soup made with bonito soup stock, red miso paste and eggplant.
The effects of roasted starch, protein and fat on the foaming characteristics of buku-buku cha were investigated. Starch roasted for 20 minutes resulted in a large amount of foam, with amylose differing in its foaming characteristics from amylopectin. Non-roasted protein created a relatively coarse and unstable foam, while protein roasted for 20 min resulted in a fine and stable foam. Fat hindered foaming, but roasting fat weakened this hindering effect. We consider that the fine and stable foam resulting from rice roasted for more than 20 min would be due to the transformation of amylopectin, protein and fat.
This study examined the actual consumption of rice as the staple food in Japan by comparatively analyzing the rice-eating patterns of students consuming large and small amounts of rice to determine effective approaches to the most appropriate rice consumption. Most students tended to eat all the food on their plates, so serving rice in a larger bowl may be an effective approach to increase the amount of rice eaten without emphasizing its greater volume. Assuming that the volume of a mouthful of rice is equivalent to the size of a small tomato, education to encourage the consumption of 4-5 further mouthfuls of rice may be effective. Further studies will examine whether such an approach would be effective to lead students consuming a small amount of rice toward a more appropriate rice consumption in the long term, and to devise a method to increase the volume of a mouthful of rice without decreasing the chewing time per mouthful.