IEEJ Transactions on Industry Applications
Online ISSN : 1348-8163
Print ISSN : 0913-6339
ISSN-L : 0913-6339
Volume 112 , Issue 3
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Gunji Kimura, Tadao Isikawa
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 201
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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  • Tadao Ishikawa
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 202-205
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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  • Kunio Takahashi
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 206-208
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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  • Shinobu Yasukawa
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 209-211
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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  • Norio Igawa
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 212-214
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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  • Motoo Ishikawa, Juro Umoto
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 215-220
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate availability of high performance coal-fired MHD-steam power plant. (1) Thermal efficiency of 50% can be obtained with 1, 000MW thermal input when 15m Faraday channel designed with up-to-date low temperature walls is used together with 1, 620K air heater. (2) Higher cycle efficiency of 55.5% can be obtained when the thermal input increases to 2, 000MW even when the MHD channel is designed with low temperature wall. (3) If higher temperature for air heater, 2, 100K and for channel wall, 2, 200K can be realized, very high cycle efficiency of 61.0% can be obtained.
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  • Pyong Sik Pak
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 221-228
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    A novel carbon dioxide-recovering gas turbine power generation system is proposed in which carbon dioxide (CO2) generated is recovered by adopting the oxygen (02) combustion method and no thermal nitrogen oxide is generated. In the system, super heated steam produced by utilizing waste heat from a factory is used as working fluid of the gas turbine. Thus, the compressing process of the working fluid gas, which is the most energy-consuming process in generating power by using gas turbine, is not needed, and this makes the system to be extremely high-efficient. By taking a garbage incineration plant as an example of waste heat emitting factories, the characteristics of the system was simulated. Gross thermal efficiency has been estimated to be 88.0%, and the power generation efficiency to be 70.4% by subtracting the electric power required not only to generate O2 and to compress it but also to liquefy the recovered CO2. The net power generation efficiency was calculated to be 47.8% when the energy supplied by the garbage incineration plant is taken into account. This value is higher than the efficiency, 44.5%, of the most advanced large scale thermal power generation plant using the same natural gas, and is 23.5% higher than its efficiency of 38.7%, the one estimated if the CO2 is removed and recovered from the stack gas by using alkanolamine-based solvent and the recovered CO2 is liquefied.
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  • Hiroshi Asano, Ei-ichi Imamura, Shigeo Sagai
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 229-234
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    For commercial customers with a cogeneration system (CGS), a mixed integer programming model is used to examine effects of time-of-use (TOU) rate structure on the optimal operation of the system as well as its optimal capacity. Three case studies are performed for a hotel, a hospital, and an office building (20, 000m2 in total floor space, respectively). The optimal capacity of the generator under the flat rate is 50 to 70% of peak power demand. Effects of on-peak/off-peak energy charge ratio are saturated at a ratio of 5. It is not until the energy charge ratio of between 2 and 5 that the purchase of off-peak power increases in summer when price reduction is applied to city gas. As the energy charge ratio is raised, cheaper off-peak power is substituted for city gas and the summation of electricity energy charge and gas energy charge decreases. The simulation results indicate that properly designed TOU rates may provide commercial customers an incentive to operate a cogeneration system with an appropriate mix of the self-generation and commercial power.
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  • Hiroshi Endo, Hiroshi Ogawa
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 235-243
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    This paper firstly proposes a new methodology to assess the generating costs of photovoltaic power systems for residential electric energy use and to evaluate these systems economies.
    We next describe the hourly computer simulation method of residential photovoltaic system operation by applying the standard meteorological data and typical daily residential load curves to make clear the following subjects; (1) the extent of the residential electric energy being served by photovoltaic power system, (2) the extent of the most economical battery capacity, (3) the relation between the scale of photovoltaic system and the size and shape of residential load curve, (4) the contribution to the residential photovoltaic systems economy by the utilities purchase price of surplus power. We actually estimated the economy of residential photovoltaic power system in 2000 in Japan.
    As a result we found that it was difficult for residential photovoltaic power system to get economy under the cost target of Sunshine Project in 2000 and it was necessary to reduce the cost of solar cell and balance of systems furthermore.
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  • Kensuke Kawasaki
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 244-249
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    Capability of power generation system which uses natural energy depends on weather conditions and capacity of the generation facility.
    “Capability of power generation” and “Capability of energy generation” are the typical indices of capability of the power generation facility.
    So far, “Capability of energy generation of the PV system” has been well studied, but “Power capability of generation system” has not been studied well.
    For ideal system designing and understanding the power capability of PV system, it is necessary to obtain the relationship between facility capacity and power capability of generation system.
    We have made simulation tests by using measured insolation to analyze the relationship between
    facility capacity and power capability of PV system.
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  • Tokuo Ohnishi, Takata Member
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 250-257
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    As well known, a solar cell has an optimal operating point to be able to get the maximum power Pmax. But it may vary depending on the miss match between the solar cell output and the load. So, many Pmax tracking controllers using microprocessor have been popularly used. In the conventional control system, the solar cell output power is used as a control variable.
    In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of Pmax control using the output power, the output voltage and the output current instead of the solar cell output power. And we also examine about the optimal power converter using step up and down chopper circuit to operate the solar cell at an optimal voltage using these variables. And then, we show some experimental results to confirm the successful operation.
    From the investigations, we may be concluded that the control variables using the output voltage and the output current is useful and for general applications connecting to the DC load composed of the resistive load and the voltage source, the output current control is better than the others.
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  • Katsumi Ohniwa, Iwao Kurata
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 258-263
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    Photovoltaic power can be generated even in small size installation. In a residential photovoltaic system the solar cell module array is mounted on the roof. In this case the controller for the maximum power tracking is required to be compact because the space of the control installation is not easily obtainable. For this reason the development of the high frequency operating controller is essential. However the e-i characteristics of the solar array at the frequency have hysteresis. In such frequency region the conventional controller based on no hysteresis can not be responsible for control of the power system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a now control method to track the maximum power point of the solar array at the high frequency.
    In this paper the authors proposed a modified method of Prof. Boehringer's maximum power tracking technique to improve the operation in the region of high frequency. The distinguishing characteristic of this method is to be controlled by the estimated values which do not depend on the operating frequency. The experimental result of the power system controlled by the proposed method shows excellent performances.
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  • Yoshishige Kemmoku, Kazushi Kaneko, Tateki Sakakibara
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 264-269
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    In order to smooth fluctuation of a solar-only or a wind-only generating system, a solar-wind hybrid generating system has been proposed. Using computer simulation, this paper presents how an electricity consumer reduces a peak value of purchased electricity and exhaust CO2 gas by introducing the hybrid system. In the hybrid system, the energy flows are controlled on the basis of “a peak load reduction method”. System performance are evaluated in terms of the peak value and the total energy of purchased electricity. The amount of exhaust CO2 gas is assumed to be proportional to the purchased energy.
    The simulations are run for a battery-only system and the hybrid system. The results show that the peak value decreases with the battery capacity and the total energy decreases with the natural energy pentration. And it is found that the appropriate values of the battery capacity and the natural energy penetration are 0.5 day of the daily load and 20-25% of the yearly load, respectively, under the load pattern and the metheorogical data adopted in this paper.
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  • Kazushi Kaneko, Yoshishige Kemmoku, Tateki Sakakibara
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 270-276
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    This paper presents computer simulations for stand-alone photovoltaic/wind hybird generating systems. Two types of hybrid systems A and B: without and with a storage battery, are compared. If weather data and a load pattern are given and a natural energy penetration (NEP) is designated, the simulation could lead the system sizes (photovoltaic generator, wind generator, storage battery, etc.) and the operating method of an auxiliary generator so as to increase the effective natural energy penetration and decrease the battery capacity as much as possible. Equipment costs of the hybrid systems A and B are estimated as a function of natural energy penetration. “Kamishima” island is adopted as a site where the hybrid system is installed.
    The simulation results show that in case of NEP=100% the optimum ratios of photovoltaic to wind energies are 20/80 and 50/50 in systems A and B, and the appropriate battery capacity is 0.9×(one day load energy) in system B.
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  • Hiroyuki Takazawa, Masatsugu Amano, Takenobu Kajikawa
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 277-284
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    At-sea tests on an ocean-based mariculture-OTEC pilot plant using deep seawater were carried out from July 8 to September 7, 1989 and from July 10 to August 7, 1990 off Himi in Toyama Bay, the Sea of Japan. 0.3m3/s of deep seawater and 0.6m3/s of surface seawater were intaken and the mixed seawater of them was sprayed on sea surface in order to obtain the basic data on the enhancement of bio-productivity due to nutrient-rich deep seawater for open ocean. At the same time, OTEC(Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) power generation experiment was carried out by using one tenth of intaken seawater in order to detect the system characteristics in real sea state. In the practical scale the OTEC power output will be used as a self-sustaining for an ocean-based mariculture-OTEC total system.
    According to at-sea tests, the basic design data for a self-sustaining mariculture-OTEC system were obtained; the dependency of OTEC power output on temperature variation of both surface and deep seawater was compared with the numerical model developed by ETL. The performance of each major component such as evaporator, and condenser, which was made of aluminum alloy and had the enhanced surface, was measured. The time dependency of biofouling factor was also detected and the cleaning effect was discussed. It was concluded that this system would be a self-sustainig system if all intaken seawater was used in OTEC power system.
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  • Yi Tong, Junji Morimoto, Shigeo Morimoto, Yoji Takeda, Takao Hirasa
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 285-291
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    This paper proposes a maximum efficiency control algorithm of brushless DC motors for energy saving. This control method shows that motor losses are reduced considerably by actively controlling the d-axis component of the armature current at any speed and power levels. The optimum d-axis current is supplied by a controller which solves the maximum efficiency control algorithm using motor parameters. The performance characteristics are examined in detail by the computer simulations. The efficiency characteristics are affected by the machine parameters which depend on the rotor configurations and permanent magnets arrangement. This paper also investigates the influence of the machine parameters on the efficiency characteristics. To realize this control method simply, an approximation of the maximum efficiency control algorithm is also proposed. Experimental results are presented to verify the improvement of the efficiency.
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  • Shigeo Morimoto, Keita Hatanaka, Yi Tong, Yoji Takeda, Takao Hirasa
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 292-298
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    Permanent magnet synchronous (PM) motors are widely used for industrial applications. In traction and spindle drives, the constant power operation and wide speed range are desirable. With DC motor drives, these are achieved by the appropriate reduction of the field current as the speed increases. In the PM motor, the direct control of magnet flux is not available. The air-gap flux, however, can be weakened by the direct axis armature reaction. This control technique is called “flux-weakening” instead of “field-weakening”. This paper describes a variable speed drive system of PM motor for the constant power and wide speed range operations. In the proposed control system, a novel flux-weakening technique is applied. The current vector is controlled so that the maximum torque per armature current can be obtained at low speeds and the terminal voltage is kept within its limited value at high speeds. The control performances are examined by the simulations and the experimental results.
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  • Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yoshihisa Anazawa, Katsubumi Tajima, Akio Kaga, Tak ...
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 299-306
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    A pole-changing induction motor with pole-amplitude modulation allows a speed ratio other than 1:2 using a single winding. Furthermore it has a good energy-saving performance when used for the flow rate control of pump or blower, and also it provides a low manufacturing cost. However, the pole-changing induction motor with pole-amplitude modulation has a problem that its simple calculation method of characteristics has not been presented.
    A purpose of this paper is to derive the calculation method by using an equivalent circuit in when an 8-pole cage type induction motor is changed into a 10-pole motor by pole-amplitude modulation. In this paper, the authors suggest the equivalent circuit in which the space harmonic effects are considered, because the 10-pole motor has large harmonic magnetomotive forces. This paper also describes a simple determination method of equivalent circuit constants.
    Torque-slip characteristics and output-characteristics are obtained, and it has been confirmed that they agree well with the experimental values. This calculation method of characteristic is practical and useful for the future designing of pole-changing induction motors with pole-amplitude modulation.
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  • Fuminori Ishibashi, Shinich Noda, Sadaaki Mori
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 307-313
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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    The small squirrel cage three-phase induction motor has been used in all types of industry for a number of years. Motor radial vibration and noise caused by electromagnetic force are addressed in this paper.
    At first, the frequency of the harmonic fluxes, which are main factor of vibration and noise, is discussed. Then modes and frequencies of electromagnetic radial force wave, induced by these harmonic fluxes, were calculated.
    Natural frequency responses and modes of experimental motors were measured. Also frequencies and modes of vibration were measured on a running experimental motor. The experimental data was compared with the calculated values.
    As a result, it was newly confirmed that modes of the running motor were determined to be a function of the natural frequency mode of the structure, not by modes of the electromagnetic radial force wave. It became clear that these modes did not rotate around the core. They were stationary waves.
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  • Kiyohito Yamasawa, Yukio Hirohama
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 314-315
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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  • Koichiro Sawa, Nobuhiro Shimoda
    1992 Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 316-317
    Published: March 20, 1992
    Released: December 19, 2008
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