To resolve energy shortage and global warming problem, renewable natural resource and its power system has been gradually generalizing. However, the power fluctuation suppressing in short period and the balance control of consumption and supply in long period are two of main problems that need to be resolved urgently in natural energy power system. In Stand-alone Natural Energy Power System (SNEPS) with power energy storage devices, power fluctuation in short period is one of the main reasons that recharge cycle times increase and lead-acid battery early failure. Hence, to prolong the service life of lead-acid battery and improve power quality through suppressing the power fluctuation, we proposed a method of electric power smoothing for lead-acid battery of SNEPS using bi-directional Buck/Boost converter and Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) in this paper. According to the test data of existing SNEPS, a power fluctuation condition is selected and as an example to analyze the validity of the proposed method. The analysis of frequency characteristics indicates the power fluctuation is suppressed a desired range in the target frequency region. The experimental results of confirmed the feasibility of the proposed system and the results well satisfy the requirement of system design.
High efficiency drive can be achieved by the maximum torque-per-ampere (MTPA) control which used reluctance torque effectively. However, the calculations for estimating rotor position and for controlling the d-axis current are required. The motor parameters of inductance etc. that are easily affected by magnetic saturation are included in those calculations. This paper proposes a new MTPA control method, which is robust against changes of motor parameters caused by magnetic saturation. In addition, complex calculation for d-axis current or reference to the table is not necessary. In this method, we define a novel coordinate frame, which has one axis aligned with the current vector of the MTPA control, and estimate the frame directly. Because the parameter Lqm for estimating the frame is less affected by the magnetic saturation than the conventional Lq, the effect of magnetic saturation on the position estimation can be greatly suppressed. First, an extended electromotive force model based on the proposed frame and a parameter Lqm for an estimation of the frame are derived. Next, the effectiveness of this proposed method is confirmed by simulations and experiments.
This paper reports our study of a phenomenon in which magnetic saturation causes a step-out in sensorless control of IPMSM motors using the magnetic flux observer. The Finite-Element-Method (FEM) can simulate the flux distribution and electromotive force at any armature current. The obtained voltage is supplied to the flux observer containing model errors. Under stable condition, the estimated phase error of this observer is calculated by easy vector operational expression. By the phase error characteristics, it was found that the unstable current appeared in the region, where the error fluctuation increases to the negative direction. We described this problem was caused by the voltage equivalent to interference component arising from the phase error fluctuation. Finally, we suggested a method of avoiding this unstable phenomenon and showed the improved result obtained through some experiments.
In this paper digital predictive average, peak and valley current control schemes suitability for the fourth order boost converter is investigated. Mathematical analysis of predictive average, peak and valley current control schemes is established for fixed and variable frequency of operations. Current control laws are formulated based on the average inductor current information together with digital trailing triangle edge pulse width modulation. The analysis shows that the predictive peak current control scheme is unstable with fixed-frequency operation, while it is stable with variable frequency control. Digital predictive average and valley current control schemes are stable for all duty ratios as well as for fixed and variable frequency of operations. Converter modeling and stability evaluation is carried out using modified discrete modeling approach. Simulations results of the fourth order boost converter support the theoretical analysis. Proposed digital predictive current control schemes, with fixed as well as variable frequencies, are validated through experimental investigations. Since the control law is based on one current sample per cycle the computational burden on the processor is low.
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
Bilateral control is one of the control methods of teleoperation systems. Human operators can feel reaction force from remote environment by means of this control scheme. This paper presents a novel control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with/without time delay. The proposed bilateral control system has three communication channels between master and slave robots. In concrete terms, this system has two transmission channels of position and force information from the master side to the slave side and one transmission channel of force information from the slave side to the master side. The master controller of the proposed three-channel teleoperation system does not include a position controller, i.e. only force control is implemented in the master side, in order to improve operationality in the master side. The three-channel controller with time delay as well as without time delay gives better performance (higher transparency) than other conventional controllers such as four-channel controllers and so on. In the proposed controller, models of a slave robot and communication time delay are not required differently from conventional methods, and robust acceleration control is achieved by using the disturbance observer (DOB). Hybrid matrices are utilized to analyze four-channel and three-channel control systems. Transmission characteristics of force and position information between master and slave robots are clarified in the analysis. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results.
Brushless permanent magnet motors have been widely used in home applications and industrial fields. These days, high efficiency and low noise motors are demanded from the view point of environment. Electromagnetic noise and iron loss of the motor are produced by the harmonic fluxes and electromagnetic forces. However, order and space pattern of these have not been discussed in detail. In this paper, fluxes, electromagnetic forces and magneto-motive forces of brushless permanent magnet motors with concentric winding were analyzed analytically, experimentally and numerically. Time harmonic fluxes and time electromagnetic forces in the air gap were measured by search coils on the inner surface of the stator teeth and analyzed by FEM. Space pattern of time harmonic fluxes and time electromagnetic forces were worked out with experiments and FEM. Magneto motive forces due to concentric winding were analyzed with equations and checked by FEM.
In this paper, we investigate into an approach to predict the magnet temperature in interior permanent magnet synchronous generator for mass-produced front engine rear drive hybrid vehicles. To achieve an accurate thermal analysis, the generator losses under PWM converter drive are firstly calculated by 3D-FEM using measured current waveform including PWM carrier harmonics. As an approach for thermal analysis, a lumped capacitance model is proposed, which makes it possible to estimate the magnet temperature with fast computation. The thermal analysis is executed using the calculated losses and the experimentally obtained thermal resistance as the inputs. The calculated magnet temperature characteristics are in good agreement with the measured ones. As a result, it is verified that the proposed thermal analysis is effective for estimating the magnet temperature in this kind of application.
For a programmable controller, a computational complexity reduction method of Model Predictive Control is presented. The extend reference and the reference trajectory are introduced to the input constraint algorithm. The judgment horizon for transient characteristic is proposed to avoid an overshoot.
This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using “if-then rules”, hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes a new heat capacity identification method that uses Mahalanobis-Taguchi System which is similar to discriminant analysis, and the effectiveness of this method is confirmed by the experiment.
Recently, the plant growth using the LED light source becomes popular for the agricultural field. Because the San-in area has especially the shortage of daylight than other area in Japan, the potentiality for the reduction of growth period and the improvement of quality by the artificial light source is researched. This paper describes an effective experimental method of LED light source for the vegetable growth.
This paper describes the variable speed drive simulation of segment type surface-mounted-PM synchronous motor using finite element method. It is confirmed by simulation results that the proposed segment type PM motor has excellent control performance for the wide variable speed range.