IEEJ Transactions on Industry Applications
Online ISSN : 1348-8163
Print ISSN : 0913-6339
ISSN-L : 0913-6339
Volume 123 , Issue 12
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
Paper
  • Masayoshi Yamamoto, Shinji Sato, Eiji Hiraki, Mutsuo Nakaoka
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1397-1405
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a novel prototype of 3-level 3-phase voltage-fed soft switching commutation inverter with two Active Auxiliary Resonant DC Link (ARDCL) snubbers which can operate under a condition of Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) transition. Its operating principle is described herein. The feasible steady-state performances of the proposed soft switching commutated inverter using the latest IGBTs such as planner type and trench type IGBTs, which is more suitable for power systems applications, are evaluated and discussed on the basis of its experimental results and simulation ones.
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  • Kazuya Mori, Shingo Takahashi, Akio Hasebe, Sumiko Seki, Takahiko Itoh
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1406-1413
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Decrease in energy density of the storage system with several electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is caused by imbalance of voltage for each EDLC. In case of low power applications, conventional voltage balancer with constant voltage circuits is useful. However, it has some problems for high power applications such as electric vehicle. We have developed a new system to balance the voltage of EDLCs by removing a little energy. In any case, the system can store the energy in each EDLC equally. In the present research, a prototype of voltage balancer is produced for making use of a number of EDLCs and evaluated. The results confirm that the system is effective and suitable for high power applications.
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  • Shinji Sato, Serguei Moisseev, Manabu Ishitobi, Eiji Hiraki, Mutsuo Na ...
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1414-1421
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Advanced development of the high frequency pulse modulated DC/DC power converters are indispensable in order to achieve smaller size, higher performances of the power supplies. In resent years the problems of the electromagnetic noise generation caused by the hard-switching pulse width modulation (PWM)—based high frequency operation of the switching power devices have been significant, including switching losses and switching surges. As result a variety of soft-switching power conversion circuit technologies have been attracted special interests for reducing switching power losses and minimizing electromagnetic interference. The soft-switching pulse modulation of DC/DC power circuit topologies can be divided into continuous current mode resonant type and quasi-resonant voltage mode type. The soft-switching DC/DC converters, a continuous current mode zero current soft-switching (ZCS) DC/DC converter with pulse frequency modulation (PFM) has been already put into a practical use. In this sort of power converters soft-switching commutation can be achieved over wide load variation ranges and high stability can be also performed, but high current peak stress through power semiconductor devices arises, however, and it causes relatively large increase of conduction power losses in the power semiconductor devices, high frequency transformers as well as rectifier diodes. As a result, the problem of a high efficiency for DC/DC power converter could not still unsolved.
    Thereupon, in this paper, quasi-resonant voltage mode based soft-switching PWM DC/DC power converter with a high frequency transformer link is presented, which has on/off assisted synchronous rectifier in its secondary side. The PWM operation of this converter is described in comparison with conventional one. Due to using power MOSFET as on/off assisted synchronous rectifier in the secondary side of the high frequency isolated transformer, it is possible to achieve stable zero voltage soft-switching (ZVS) conditions from no load to the rated load for minimum requirement of a magnetizing current. As result of a high value of the magnetizing inductance design, the power converter actual efficiency of this converter can be designed so as to above 97% in experiment. Moreover, results of a switching losses analysis are discussed from an experimental point of views in this paper. The effectiveness of the power converter treated hare is proved from a practical point of view by using 32kHz-2.5kW breadboard setup.
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  • Yoshiaki Kano, Shingo Fubuki, Takashi Kosaka, Nobuyuki Matsui
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1422-1429
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM) have simple and rugged construction, they are suitable for low-cost variable speed drives in many industrial applications. However, it is rather difficult to design the motor and to predict the drive performance because of high magnetic non-linearity of the motors. Although FEM is useful for the SRM design, one of disadvantages is a long computation time.
    This paper proposes a simplified and fast evaluation method of the drive characteristics of SRM whose dimensions are given. The proposed method is composed of an analytical expression of magnetizing curvebased modeling approach and a simple non-linear magnetic analysis. At first, the comparative studies using 12/8 SRM show that the calculated current waveform and stiffness characteristic of the proposed modeling approach are in good agreement with those of experiment. Secondly, it is shown that the proposed magnetic analysis provides accurate and extremely fast magnetizing curves computation for the given motor dimensions compared to 3D-FEM. From the standpoints of analytical accuracy and the required computation time, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through the comparisons with 3D-FEM using two SRMs with different specifications.
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  • Masanori Yamato, Yukihiko Sato
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1430-1437
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, a control method in fault-mode for three-phase voltage source inverters to drive AC motors is proposed. The proposed method does not require any additional switching devices and specially constructed motors with an external terminal of the neutral point. Thus, this method can be easily applied to conventional three-phase voltage source inverters. When the one leg of the inverters is lost by a trouble in the switching devices, the turn-on signals for the switching devices are removed. Then, the corresponding phase of the motor is connected to the neutral point of the DC link divided by the two series-connected DC smoothing capacitors. In this connection, the switching devices in the remaining two phases of the inverter can apply sinusoidal line-to-line voltage to produce the three-phase balanced currentin the motor. To realize the proposed method, a method to compensate the voltage fluctuation of the DC neutral point must be developed. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for the fault-mode three-phase voltage source inverters has been confirmed by the experimental results employing a test system.
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  • Masayuki Sanada, Kazuaki Nakata, Shigeo Morimoto, Yoji Takeda, Hiroyuk ...
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1438-1445
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A switched reluctance motor (SRM) has a simple construction, for example double saliency, and the rotor contains no windings or magnets. However, the disadvantage of the acoustic noise associated with this motor cannot be ignored.
    The acoustic noise is generated primarily by the radial force acting in the radial direction. As the excitation current is cut off, the radial force is suddenly reduced to 0. The stator yoke repeats attraction and release motion as the commutation at the excitation winding is repeated. This attraction and release motion excites the resonance frequency of the stator.
    In this paper, a new rotor pole structure is proposed to improve the acoustic noise of the SRM. The FEM analysis of the torque and radial force indicates that the presence of a hole in the rotor pole reduces the radial force. In addition, the effect of the radial force reduction was found to depend only slightly on the height of the hole, whereas the dependence on the width of the hole was significant.
    Experimental findings confirmed that a rotor pole having a hole is an effective method by which to improve the noise.
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  • Shinji Shinnaka
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1446-1460
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes new sensorless vector control methods that can be applied to both of salient-pole and non-salient-pole permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The proposed method estimates the phase of rotor flux by the “D-module observer”, which is newly developed for sensorless vector controls of PMSM. The “D-module observer” has the following attractive features. 1) It is a new state observer requiring no additional approximation to the motor mathematical model. 2) It is a minimum order state observer. 3) Observer gain guaranteeing proper estimation in four quadrants wide operating range except singular zero-speed can be a simple constant, and can be easily designed. 4) It utilizes motor parameters in the simplest manner. 5) Its structure is very simple and realized at the minimum computing cost. 6) It can be applied to both of salient-pole and non-salient-pole PMSM. 7) It can be realized in both rotor and stator reference frames. Detailed designs and analyses for the “D-module observer” and “D-module observer” based sensorless vector control systems in both rotor and stator reference frames are given. Their validity and usefulness are examined and confirmed through extensive experiments.
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  • Nobutaka Bando, Sehoon Oh, Yoichi Hori
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1461-1466
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, a new method for disturbance rejection control which is based on adaptive identification of transfer characteristics from acceleration sensor is proposed. For hard disk drive, external disturbance which should be reduced is growing with widespread use of movable computers and other independent machinery. In order to reject the effect of the external disturbance we apply the feedforward controller which is designed by the adaptive identification algorithm. In adaptive identification, the proposed method uses Disturbance Observer to get the estimated disturbance as a substitute for the system disturbance which can’t be observed. By this, the proposed method can identify the transfer characteristics directly which was impossible before and can design the feedforward input easily. Some experimental results in which a hard disk drive is shaken in the vertical direction are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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  • Isao Takahashi, Hitoshi Haga
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1467-1473
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a novel inverter drive system to improve input power factor of the single-phase diode rectifier. Conventional rectifier needs a high frequency switching devices and a reactor to improve input power factor. However, the proposed power converter doesn’t need the switching device, the electrolytic capacitor and the reactor. By making many ripples across the dc-bus voltage and then, the input power factor can be improved. The proposed system consists of an only single-phase diode rectifier, small film capacitor, three-phase inverter and motor. The proposed system adopts an interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor. The IPM motor is well known as a high efficiency motor and can get field weakening. The basic ideas of the inverter control method are based on two following operations. First, the inverter’s controlled synchronous with the dc-bus ripple voltage by field-weakening method.The other is direct active power feeding from the source side to the motor without smoothing the dc-bus voltage. This paper describes that the proposed method can obtain the input power factor 97.3% by experimental tests, and realize the small size and the long life of the system.
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  • Tadashi Egami, Yoshihiro Tsuburaya
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1474-1482
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We propose a new path control method with vector decomposition by means of expansionary coordinate transformations in this paper. In the present study, a motion equation of multiaxial systems in an orthogonal coordinate system is transformed into a rotational coordinate system whose axes are expanded. Then, an arbitrary curve path can be transformed into the circle or straight line path using the transformations. The transformed motion equation can be decoupled and decomposed into a gain component and a phase component. Both the gain component and the phase component control system are constructed independently. In the transformed area, the desired value of the gain component becomes constant and the gain component error is equal to the path error which can converge to zero by using 1-type controller. The effect of disturbances will be absorbed by the phase component control system and the path error is little disturbed. In the proposed method, essential path control can be realized using the unity control coefficient over a wide range, from the desired curved line path to the straight line path. The proposed control method is applied to multi-axis linear motor tables, and the effectiveness of this method is confirmed experimentally.
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  • Hiroto Hamane, Shuich Yokoyama, Hitoshi Onogaki
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1483-1489
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Multiple model adaptive PID strategies are considered for a diversified small-quantity production issue of a temperature control system. The dynamics of the plant are different for each system change and also time varying. The system must also satisfy the mechanical conditions. This paper especially focuses on system changes for an extruder control system to verify the proposed method. For a wide range operation, the partition of plant parameters, design of the controller bank and model bank, and the control algorithm itself for the extruder control system were developed. The computer simulation and experiment have shown that MMAC can be successfully applied to the extruder despite uncertainty in the time delays, time constant, and gains.
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  • Hiroyasu Kifune, Takumi Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro Hatanaka, Mutsuo Nakaoka
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1490-1497
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The voltage source full bridge series load resonant high frequency soft switching inverter using pulse phaseshift modulation (PSM) strategy is proposed, which can operate ZVS in the left hand side bridge leg and ZCS in the right side bridge leg. This inverter using IGBTs employs two passive components and does not need any additional auxiliary circuit for the active power switch to achieve soft switching commutation, and it has wide soft switching operation region from full power to 3% light power. Furthermore, constant frequency power regulation that is required for induction-heating power applications is introduced on the basis of PSM. In this paper, steady state switching modes of the inverter treated here and its power regulation scheme by PSM are described under a soft switching scheme. Because the proposed inverter can operate at series resonant frequency of series resonant circuit under soft switching condition, it is easy to design the value of series resonant capacitor. The design methods of loss-less snubbing circuit components for soft switching are described to reduce switching losses effectively. The feasible experiment of the proposed inverter is implemented to demonstrate the power regulation performance of proposed high frequency inverter, high efficiency 97.6% at full power condition is obtained.
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  • Motoki Asano, Fumihiko Saitoh
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1498-1506
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a method to recognize poses of figures which have arbitrary locations, sizes and rotations for measuring poses of two-dimensional industrial components. A template figure is represented by set of edge directions and curvature ratios of selected a pair of edge pixels and vectors that extended to the base pixel from the midpoint of a pair of pixels. Moreover, in order to cut down calculation cost by using a genetic algorithm, the characteristic portion of a template figure is extracted and it registers with a template table. The experimental results show that the poses of objective components were recognized successfully even if the components were overlapped. And, the matching time of the proposed method was cut down as compared with the case where the genetic algorithm is not used.
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  • Shinji Ichikawa, Mutuwo Tomita, Shinji Doki, Shigeru Okuma, Fumiharu F ...
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1507-1515
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new mathematical model called an Extended EMF (EEMF) model and a sensorless control method using the concept for PMSMs have proposed by authors, and their availability have been verified by experiments. The purpose of this paper is to apply the EEMF model to sensorless control of synchronous reluctance motors. Since synchronous reluctance motors do not have any permanent magnet, a main flux direction of a motor model can be chosen in two ways. And the difference of the main flux direction leads to two EEMF models. Between two EEMF models, there is some difference from the point of the motor model for sensorless control. We indicate the difference of two EEMF models clearly and derive the difference of the position estimation error caused by deviation of inductance parameters. Moreover, the selection way of EEMF models is discussed. Finally, the selection method is verified by experiments.
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  • Yukihiro Okada, Yoshihiro Kawase
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1516-1522
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper has described the method of optimization based on the finite element method. The quality engineering and the multivariable analysis are used as the optimization technique. This optimizing method consists of two steps. At Step.1, the influence of parameters for output is obtained quantitatively, at Step.2, the number of calculation by the FEM can be cut down. That is, the optimal combination of the design parameters, which satisfies the required characteristic, can be searched for efficiently. In addition, this method is applied to a design of IPM motor to reduce the torque ripple. The final shape can maintain average torque and cut down the torque ripple 65%. Furthermore, the amount of permanent magnets can be reduced.
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  • Kato Toshiji
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1523-1529
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a general circuit equation formulation method by generalizing the conventional modified nodal analysis (MNA) method. The method consists of two equation types; one is conservation equations which express a conservation law in each physical system like the Kirchhoff’s law for an electrical system and the other is constraint condition equations, for example, signal flow relations in a control system. Therefore it is possible to analyze mixed physical system generally by formulating equations simultaneously with node variables of systems and necessary constraint equations. MNA has a special feature that it can express contributions of each element or component to the equations simply and clearly by a so-called stamp. This paper derives how to express the contributions and get a stamp for the equations. A stamp is flexible and not unique and dependent on purposes. It is possible to select a stamp for each element to be compatible with ones by the Tableau method. A proto type simulation program is developed and validated for four application examples which are selected to show how the proposed method works. It is possible to simulate a power electronic system generally by developing such a simulator which can handle general stamps from input data information flexibly.
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  • Shigeyuki Funabiki, Toshihiko Tanaka, Toshinori Fujii
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1530-1536
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new optimization method of the electric power leveling system using an SMES is proposed. The SMES is parallelly connected with rolling mills in steel works. The leveling control is based on fuzzy reasoning. The SMES capacity and the scaling factors of the fuzzy controller will be optimized so that the power leveling control can be achieved and then the total cost of the added SMES cost and reduced contract electricity rate becomes lower. The optimization is carried out using the genetic algorithm and the cost reduction of 7.76 billion yen can be achieved. It is confirmed by the power leveling simulation that the proposed optimization method is very effective for designing the power leveling system.
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  • Kazutaka Itako, Takeaki Mori
    Type: Others
    Subject area: Others
    2003 Volume 123 Issue 12 Pages 1537-1543
    Published: 2003
    Released: June 18, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, a new control method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in stand-alone-type PV generaton systems is proposed. In this control method, the operations detecting the maximum power point and tracking its point are alternately carried out by using a step-up DC—DC converter. This method requires neither the measurement of temperature and insolation level nor PV array model.
    In a stand-alone-type application with a battery load, the design method for the boost inductance L of the step-up DC—DC converter is described, and the experimental results show that the use of the proposed MPPT control increases the PV generated energy by 14.8% compared to the conventional system.
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