Recently electronics equipment such as personal computer, digital videotape recorder, digital camera and mobile phone with camera are progressing rapidly. They are becoming bigger memory capacity and more image quality. Printer which is output device of them is changing from monochrome to full color. Therefore, needs of higher speed, higher image quality, higher reliability and smaller size are required. Intermediate transfer belt is one of key parts for achieving them. The purpose of this report is to explain relationship between materials and properties based on material technology. Also we report patent trend about transfer belt. Especially we describe about electrical properties, mechanical properties and morphology from higher image quality point of view and electrical stability and mechanical stability from long time stability point of view.
A three-dimensional calculation of toner movement in a transfer region is carried out and toner satellites are simulated. This simulation consists of an electric field calculation between two parallel plates and a toner movement calculation. In order to estimate a force on toner in detail, an electric field created by electrodes and surface charges, toner repulsive force, mirror force of a toner charge, a discharge phenomenon and toner adhesion force are considered. Toner separates from the upper plate and begins to move downward when transfer force is greater than the sum of the mirror force and the adhesion force and toner movement is calculated according to Newton's motion law. From the simulation result toner detachment happens before a discharge in non-image region occurs. Because of the repulsive force and jumping the air gap, toner scattering happens and satellites are formed on the lower plate. In order to verify the simulation results, a model experiment is carried out and is compared with the simulation. The number of satellites is compared between simulation and experiment and shows good coincidence. This comparison confirms that this simulation model is useful for calculating toner movement in a transfer process.
We examined 10developers for decolorable toner, which is composed of leuco dye colored by developer, and is erased by heating to release the developer. We classified the developers by erasability and coloring ability. The erasability of the toner is proportional to the square of the molecular weight of the developer. A strong dependence of molecular weight suggests that diffusion of the developer is a dominant factor in the discoloring process. The coloring ability depends on the number and position of the phenol-OH group.
Here, I interpret the word “3-dimensional image” as “stereoscopic display”. Then, main stream of research and development for stereoscopic display is stereoscopic motion picture (video) display. First, I classify purposes of stereoscopic display, forms of display system and methods of stereoscopic display including merits and demerits. Then, I explain the principle of stereoscopic display considering motion display. Next, I mention the information quantity of each stereoscopic display assuming the object shape which should be displayed. Finally, future scope of stereoscopic display is mentioned in my estimate.
Holographic 3-D printer (holoprinter) is developed for the purpose to reproduce 3-D image hardcopy from digital 3-D image data generated or processed by computers. In the system, holographic stereograms (HS's), in which both horizontal and vertical parallax (full-parallax) information can be recorded, are automatically printed. The 3-D image display is realized by reproducing light-rays from 3-D objects, using full-parallax HS. Through the experiments of recording monochromatic and color 3-D images, good-quality 3-D images are obtained. In addition, the experiment to reproduce the angular dependence of light-rays reflected from the object for high-reality image display is presented, and the difference between the light-ray reproduction and wavefront reconstruction is discussed as well.
Stereolithography system has become one of common tools for R & D and trial production in the various manufacturing industries by advancement of its photo-curable resin. It is widely used not only for communication tool but also for functional testing model. The development of the material will be accelarated by focusing into its functionality and the usage will expand to various field in the industry.
The 3D printer is to fabricate a 3D model using “additive fabrication” method. Presently, the 3D printer is mainly used as an output device for 3DCAD, and it's said as a “Concept Modeler”. The several “additive fabrication” methods which are presently marketed in Japan are explained. It is predicted that in the near future, the 3D digital contents available in the market will increase exponentially, from both the content type and content volume perspective. This is said as the content not only increase from the 3DCAD but also from the 3DCG, 3D scanner and 3D photography based on ever improvements with the computer specification, the spread use of internet and digitalizing the television broadcasting. The future direction of 3D printer should target forwards the output device of 3D digital contents and the improvement points for the present 3D printer to realize this has been expanded.
This report summarizes on the characteristic of human space perception and space factor, and explains problems of various three-dimensional display methods and the improvement technique. Furthermore, in this report classified life space at work distance and shows the display condition to reproduce an effective working space.
Collinear Technology is the most promising method for ultra-high density and fast transfer rates Holographic Information Storage System (HISS), so called Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD™) system. In this technology the information and reference beams are modulated co-axially by the same SLM. With this unique configuration the optical pickup can be placed on one side of HVD™. As servo technology has been introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary
Photorefractive polymers are materials, which show the photorefractive effect that refractive index modulates, when strong laser beam is irradiated. The composition of the photorefractive polymers is photoconductive material used as the organic photoreceptor and nonlinear optical chromophores which show the electro-optical effect. It can be utilized as a holographic recording material, because that this material records the intensity distribution of the light as refractive index variation is possible. In this paper, from the viewpoint of the materials development of photorefractive polymers, the method of the performance improvement is explained. And, example of the application is introduced.