This paper describes two experiments comparing reading performance such as reading speed and the accuracy of tasks in reading to answer questions using different document media : a paper book, a desktop PC, and a tablet device. In the first experiment, 20 participants searched answers from a text manual. As a result, participants performed the task fastest when using a paper book. In the second experiment, 24 participants searched given photographs from photo books. In the initial stage of the trials, the use of the desktop PC was faster than the use of the paper books. However, the use of paper books became faster when participants got accustomed to contents of the books. In both experiments, participants' approach of page access was bold and flexible when using paper books. Additionally, the use of the tablet device took time to search information because of the difficulty of rapid page access. From these results, we provide suggestions for improving page access in electronic books by consulting with rapid and flexible page access with paper books.
In solder ball mounting system by electrophotography, solder ball capturing by electrostatic latent image is observed and the capturing process is discussed from the force worked on the ball estimated by numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. Solder ball observation system by high speed camera with high magnification lens is assembled and solder ball developing process is observed in detail instead of toner developing in electrophotography. Solder ball capturing mechanism by electrostatic image on photoreceptor is revealed from the observation of ball capturing and the analysis of the force acting on the ball.
We have been studying a color change of a silver plate using sulfide solution. In the present work, we explored the possibility that a toner image which was made by a laser beam printer could be used as a mask for the color change of the silver sulfide. We found that a gloss coated paper and an OHP sheet with a cellophane tape were able to be supporting media for the toner images and show good toner transferring efficiencies to the silver plate surface. In addition, the gloss coated paper, which had small Gurley-type air permeability, had advantages in terms of air voids occurrence at the cellophane taped area.
Recently the video analysis technology has rapidly evolved. One of the most popular application of video is the surveillance camera. The aim of surveillance camera is evidence recording of crimes, however the prediction of video images of the surveillance camera may be effective for prevention of crime. In this research, the future prediction method for video data was developed. A video data is combination of time-series of still images. A video data was variable separated to time-varying weight functions and principal images by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The future of the weight functions were predicted by the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) and were recombined with the principal images to generate the future of movie.
In our daily life, we are spending hours for reading characters/documents. This is because “reading” is a primal mean of acquiring information. “Reading-life log” is a field of research that extracts fruitful information for enriching our life by analyzing pairs of reading activity and characters/documents read by persons. In the case of documents, we can estimate many things from how much we read (wordometer, reading detection) to how well we understand (the level of understanding and proficiency) by analyzing eye gaze obtained by eye-trackers. For characters in scenes, we can estimate what a person is doing by knowing characters read by him/her. In addition, a camera mounted on a finger enables us to recognize scene characters that are closely related to the activity and thus can be used to help the person. Fundamental technologies which support reading-life log are recognition and retrieval of external environment inputted as images. In order to process a huge amount of data for recognition and retrieval, we apply approximate nearest neighbor search. In this article, I describe the fundamental technologies and their application to reading-life log.
For the purpose of obtaining useful information in huge video images, still image generation techniques by reconstructing the video information are described. These techniques are completely different from automatic image recognition approaches;by assuming to use human visual recognition ability, still images are generated so that viewers can recognize the useful information effectively. Following typical examples are described : hierarchical image gathering technique for browsing surveillance camera images, visualization and analysis of plants growth by using spatio-temporal projection images, and route panorama generation of scene from transportation.
NEC has developed an image recognition service “GAZIRU”, where various real-world objects are recognized and linked to information by using smartphones cameras. In this paper, we explain the background, the technologies/implementation, and the commercialized applications for two of the GAZIRU services, GAZIRU-R and GAZIRU-Z. GAZIRU-R provides large-scale image search service for 2D/3D objects such as commercial products, documents, and buildings. We developed a new binary local descriptor called BRIGHT descriptor, which enables not only robust recognition against various camera capturing conditions, but also a high-speed response of one second or less for searching one million image database. GAZIRU-Z provides a counterfeit detection (authentication) solution for various industrial parts, by simply capturing image with an ordinary smartphone. It uses a “Fingerprint of Things” identification technology which identifies industrial parts individually by using its surface irregularities.
Fuji Xerox aims for “Real Green” concept. Fuji Xerox is developing technologies and services that realizes environmental friendliness while not sacrificing user convenience. The ApeosPort-V/DocuCentre-V C7775 series launched in 2015 uses a camera to achieve smooth user experience while achieving the “omotenashi (hospitality) ” spirit of the RealGreen concept. The “Smart WelcomEyes Advance” was jointly developed by Fuji Xerox and Toshiba and utilizes the image recognition technology used on cameras. Fuji Xerox aimed to create a new value by attaching camera to the multifunction printer. The camera judges whether the approaching user has the intent to use the multifunction printer, and if yes, wakes up the equipment so that the control panel is ready for operation when the user arrives. In addition, camera is used as an authentication device that does not require the conventional IC card. Details of these new technologies are described in this document.
Recently, the number of surveillance cameras is increasing and the visual surveillance system has become more and more important according to the growing awareness of safe and secure. However, human operators are required a large amount of activities to monitor the videos. Under this background, video analysis of surveillance camera utilizing image recognition technology is studied actively to be in practical use. The surveillance video tends to be used not only for security purpose but also for marketing research or the analysis of customer behavior. This paper overviews usecases of surveillance video analysis and introduces image recognition technologies, mainly person recognition, to realize them and its trends. We also introduce our research activity.
In manufacturing process, automation of visual inspection is in high demand. Thanks to recent progress in imaging technologies and computer vision technologies, use of automated visual inspection by image data is increasing. In this paper, we describe our two methods for Visual Inspection Algorithm Contest as an introduction of our automated visual inspection technologies. The first method can learn decision boundary of quality determining without image data of defective parts by use of semi-supervised learning. It is difficult to prepare a large number of defective samples because defects occur only in rare cases. Thus, we developed a new algorithm which can learn without defective parts by semi-supervised anomaly detection. The second method can classify defective samples, even if a shape of non-defective parts has a large variance. Some products such as primary processing stage parts, its shape has a large variance. Thus, we modified “Z-score” calculation method to increase robustness. As a result, we achieved high accuracy in the contest.
Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are a fundamental component of plant cell walls, and fibers of 4 to 20 nm width can be obtained by simple disintegration of paper pulp. Since the nanofibers are made of semi-crystalline extended cellulose chains, they exhibit high elasticity (approximately 140GPa), high strength (approximately 3GPa), and low thermal expansion (approximately 0.1ppm/K), with a density of 1.6g/cm3. Because of these excellent mechanical properties and their high specific surface area, the utilization of CNFs has gained increasing attention across the world. In this paper, after reviewing the production of CNFs and their utilizations, the current state in Japan relating to cellulose nanofibers research and development in industry and the establishment of the nanocellulose forum will be introduced.
Flexible electronics has received increasing interest, because it offers new possibilities for next-generation devices with thin, lightweight and wearable electronics. Various flexible devices, including flexible smartphones, wearable displays, and healthcare sensors, have been recently developed. These devices have been fabricated on flexible and lightweight plastic films or stretchable elastomers, instead of rigid and heavyweight glass substrates. Paper serves many purposes in daily life, such as writing, printing, and packaging applications. Paper materials are sustainable, mass producible, inexpensive, biocompatible, recyclable, lightweight, and flexible, and therefore the use of paper has recently been extended to flexible electronic applications. Here we show flexible paper electronics based on nanocellulose paper, i. e. transparent conductive paper, nonvolatile paper memory, paper antenna, prepared by using paper-specific features such as a papermaking process and a porous structure. These paper electronic devices provided both excellent flexibility and high device performances, opening new doors for future flexible and wearable electronics.
Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) is a renewable material obtained from inedible biomass, such as wood and herbaceous plants, and has superior features such as light weight, high strength, high elasticity, low thermal expansion, and high specific area. Therefore, extensive studies on CNF have been in progress in Japan and other countries. While CNF shows superior characteristics mentioned above, it is difficult to obtain homogeneous composites of CNF and hydrophobic resins due to CNF's hydrophilic and water absorbing characters. Some chemical modifications on the surface of CNF are needed to be widely used in many industrial areas. We have been developing some chemically modified CNFs based on our paper-making chemical technologies. A hydrophobicized CNF surface-treated of with a specific reagent, which has both a cellulose reactive group and a hydrophobic group showed improved dispersibility in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix. The obtained composites showed higher in tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus, and lower lineathermal expansion coefficient compared with that of none-surface treated CNF. In this article, we describe application of modified CNFs to fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites and formed resins.