We have reviewed well known prior studies which described the relationship of specific toner charge Q/m and toner/ carrier mass ratio T/C of two-component developer based on the Surface State Theory(SST). New considerations were introduced on those theories through handling parameters and assumptions of the SST. The following results were obtained. The equation proposed by Lee provides effective explanations for the relation of Q/m-T/C from the low density limit to the high density limit. From the relationship between T/C and the electric field of toner and carrier, it explains that the surface state density of toner and carrier should be in proportion to each dielectric constant of toner and carrier respectively. We have also proposed that dielectric strength of materials might define the strength of electric field in the contact electric field theory proposed by Kondo.
We have applied unstructured finite volume method to the electric field simulation in the neighborhood of a double wire scorotron. We have discussed the applicability of this method to the prediction of the exit voltage of the scorotron. By controlling the current around a wire, we have investigated the exit voltage for several pairs of the rotational speed and current. Using a method based on the Sarma' s assumption, the electric potential in the neighborhood of a wire is overestimated for the problem of the large current. Since the current conserves in the steady state, the current around the wire is the most appropriate boundary condition for the wire. We will discuss the solution accuracy and show that the electrical phenomenon around the scorotron is physically simple.
Control of toner materials state is important to maintain stable printing performance. Xerographic toners are typically blended with additives for adhesion control in development and transfer processes. 10-100 nanometer size surface additives are used to space toners away from the electrode surfaces, thereby lowering adhesion forces. However, in a developer housing, additives get buried into the toner over time due to the repeated mechanical stresses encountered. This is referred to as toner aging. Aged toners can have significantly higher adhesion forces and often perform poorly in development and transfer. This paper discusses models for estimating the surface additive coverage distribution on toners in the developer housing and its impact on development and transfer performance. Examples of toner material state control are presented.
The nature of superiority of paper media lies in the affinity of paper with human being. Developmental psychology theory suggests that the appeal of paper to human sensation and perception as well as the capability of paper of storing the meaning of sentence into the cognitive structure of individual brain deeply and stably are innate nature. Therefore, paper media will maintain its superiority in the formation of individual knowledge even in the digital age. As for the hedonic value as an indicator of human affinity, the hedonic value of paper is higher and will boost cognition processes. On the contrary, the hedonic value of electronic displaying devices at the current stage is insufficient and will inhibit cognition processes. According to the Affordance theory, the body sensation and cultural environment in the interaction between media and human being will affect cognition processes, the object's shape and various sensation other than visual one in the reading of paper-based book or electronic book will affect cognition processes. For further elucidation of this issue, the cognitive science will be a powerful tool.
Digital infrastructure in our life has been changing very rapidly. In our life, Media has a role to deliver an information to people who want it. Currently legacy medias like a paper are replaced by recent digital method because of an improvement of performance. Printing is one main method to add an information and value on paper media. Regarding a digitalization of printing area since long ago. 1st stage around 1980s, main purpose was process efficiency of printing itself, and 2nd stage after 2000s has been reforming a role of media itself. A sales promotion is changing as well with a digital infrastructure. I mention about current position of paper media, and future one.
Electronic paper is a display technology with both eye-friendly features of paper and rewritable features of digital instruments. Electronic paper needs the three requirements as follows : (1) high contrast and resolution ; (2) memory retention without electrical power ; (3) flexibility. We chose bacterial cellulose (BC) as a component of a display device. BC is produced by bacteria and has very fine network structure composed of nano-fiber. In this article, we discuss the synthetic mechanism of cellulose in bacterium and the development of a new display device by applying the structural features of BC.
Along with the evolving digitization of information, we have seen the increase in the number of cases of leakage through Web/Net, PC and recording media like USB memory. Leak of electronic document have been deterred by the increasing corporate awareness of information security and the operation of various document management. On the other hand, as the security control for paper document has been left poor, the rate of the number of cases through paper document to that of all cases has raised since 2008. Fuji Xerox has widely proposed the solutions for office security. Here, we would like to introduce two value-added technologies for paper document security. Though they are under development, we believe they will solve the problems for paper document security : determent of information leak and authentication of original. We show that Security Paper technology will protect confidential information from being brought out unauthorizedly, and that Paper Fingerprint Recognition Technology will identify the uniqueness of printed media.
Value of money came to be used as e-money as the computer developed. Moreover, the polymer note has appeared as a new media against the paper based banknote. Here, we investigated the value of paper media in this environment to know the influence of e-money. In addition, we have compared each counterfeiting technology of the banknote and the polymer note.
Paper and paper-making have various environmental aspects. This review presents the technology and theories related to recycling paper or making fresh-pulp from forest resources, and discusses LCA for paper and paper-making. Through these presentations, this review suggests that paper, which is the most suitable material for sustainable societies, will go on being useful for realizing what we are wanting.