A multi-pole magnet roller is used in the development unit, which is a part of electrophotography such as copiers, or laser printers. One production method of the multi-pole magnet roller is the extrusion molding in a high magnetic field. We must adjust various parameters such as a shape of dies and current in the coils for the magnetic characteristics specifications. To make this process more efficient, we create the electromagnetic field simulation tools for the molding process. And Genetic Algorism is applied to the optimization of these parameters. Then we can obtain a higher flux magnetic density at the main magnetic pole than ever before, in a short period.
Keywords : The focus of this present work is concerned with a novel and facile method for obtaining colored Ag nanoparticle films using an aqueous solution of sulfide as a coloring agent. In the presence of calcium sulfide, the color of the films, initially sliver, changes to pale yellow, deep yellow, purple, blue and green. We found that the key technology in obtaining successful color changes is to control the temperature of the calcium sulfide solution and the dipping time of Ag nanoparticle films in the solution. Our scanning electron microscopy studies indicate that the color of the films depend on the particle size of the surface Ag nanoparticles. This direct and simple method is very practical. One of potential applications of the Ag nanoparticle films is the application as imaging materials.
Through analyses of patent applications, which are filed as the product of the research and development in a company etc. and are published in principle, you can know in each technical field who are players and what are their business plan and strong points. The Patent Application Technology Trends Survey carried out by the Japan Patent Office contains the investigation of technical trends in a target field based on patent application information mainly. and shows progress and directionality of the technology development through additional analyses of the research trends, the market trends and so on. We publish its result expecting to be useful for corporate strategy and the research and development strategy. In 2010, we picked out the Fixing of Electrophotographic Apparatus. In this report, we show the result of this survey.
As the characteristics required for the printer, the environmental concerns such as power saving, recycling and decrease of the exhaust gases are growing in addition to basic demand such as high speed and high resolution. So each company is developing its technology recently. In that case, the understanding of the composition, the morphology and physical properties of the material and understanding analytically the phenomenon occurring in the process of printing become the shortcut towards technical improvement. In this text, in two fields of inkjet printer and electrophotography, some examples of analyses are introduced about from the material to the printed matter including chemical composition analysis, surface analysis, morphological study and physical property analysis.
Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is a generic term of new type microscopy, which employs a sharp tip scanning the surface of materials. It allows us obtaining not only image of surface topography but also surface characteristics with nano-scale resolution. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), one of the SPM, which keeps the force between tip and the material constant, enables to observe insulating materials without any surface treatment. The AFM also allows us to observe materials in fluid, ambient air and vacuum, Due to the very high and precise vertical resolution of SPM, the surface profile, roughness measurement and bird's-eye view can be obtained. Furthermore, the SPM can provide phase image, surface potential image, magnetic image, contact current image etc. of material surfaces. Those are new information from any other microscopy. Here, the principal and some applications of the SPM are described.
An ellipsometry is a metrology technique that measures a polarization state upon light reflection on a sample surface, and is able to determine a film thickness non-destructively with a high accuracy of nanometers. This technique is widely utilized for investigating the thickness and the optical properties of thin films in many industrial/scientific fields such as semiconductors, optics and electronics. Recent advances in computer and multichannel detector technologies opened a new era of the spectroscopic ellipsometry technique that has drastically expanded the application field for complex thin film samples. In this paper, the principle and the measurement/analysis methods of the spectroscopic ellipsometry are described and practical applications of the spectroscopic ellipsometny for thin film products are discussed.
Among several types of mass spectrometers currently developed and used, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) is picked up and reviewed in this paper. It can be applied for various samples in material science, including insoluble species. And further, materials can be measured and evaluated directly from industrial components in which the materials are used. Therefore its availability for industrial R & D or failure analysis processes is considered to be significant. And an application of MALDI-Imaging for material evaluation is introduced. It is a technology to visualize the molecular weight distribution in 2D samples.
ToF-SIMS has been widely used in surface analysis of organic samples. Recently, the sensitivity of organic sample has been improved by cluster beams. Under the cluster beams sputtering, the damaging free ToF-SIMS organic depth profiles have been realized. In this article, recent developments in ToF-SIMS will be summarized.
XPS is one of a surface analysis technique. XPS spectra are obtained by irradiating a material with a beam of soft X-rays while simultaneously measuring the kinetic energy and numbers of electrons ejected form several nm of the material surface. The ability to produce chemical state information makes XPS a unique tool. XPS instrument is composed of X-ray source, electron collection lens, electron energy analyzer and detector and it requires ultra high vacuum conditions. In this paper, a principle and characteristics of XPS are commented with application results.
DSC, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, can detect information of the phase transition of the materials, the heat history, the thermal curing, specific heat capacity, and purity, etc., it is used in various fields such as the polymer, the metal, the ceramic, the medicine, and the food. Especially, information available from DSC is important in not only development but also the optimization of the manufacturing process in a high performance polymer as blended polymer, polymer with filler, multilayer thin film and so on. This paper introduces measuring principles of DSC, a relationship between phase transitions of polymer materials and DSC behavior, and some applications for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and toner.