Titanium dioxide has been used in white ink, but it has the problem of sedimentation. Hollow resin particles are also used as the low specific gravity color material, but there are problems that they are softened and collapse by heat to dry on non-permeable media. In order to solve these problems, we focused on characteristics of inorganic hollow particles, especially hollow silica particles with low density in addition to heat and solvent resistance. Conventional hollow silica particles have problems of low white opacity and particle cracking. In this study, we synthesized hollow silica particles by the original method, which enables them to disperse in the ink while maintaining the hollow structure. We found that high white opacity was obtained despite low adhesion amount by controlling particle size diameter. In addition, we found that hollow silica particles have heat and solvent resistance and low sedimentation compared with titanium dioxide.
Powder EL (Electroluminescent) device is a flat light-emitting device producible only in a printing process, without the need for semiconductor processes, such as vacuum and plasma. Its structure where a dielectric is sandwiched between two planar electrodes. For this reason, the powder EL device has characteristics similar to a capacitor, but it is conceivable that dielectric loss occurs when an AC voltage is applied. In this study, in order to clarify the influence of dielectric loss in powder EL device on a paper substrate, the frequency dependence of current, luminance and tanδ was measured. As a result, it was found that changes in current and luminance with increasing frequency are non-linear. Also, at frequencies where tanδ showed a large value, the increment of current was small. Therefore, it was clarified that the frequency characteristics of dielectric loss greatly influence the frequency characteristics of current and luminance.
In general, “SHITSUKAN” such as glossiness, transparency, and roughness perceived from an object is often lost when reproduced as a digital color image. In this article, we introduce results of investigation by the authors on the SHITSUKAN which changes between the real object and the reproduced image. Then, we focus on the surface SHITSUKAN of the object lost by image reproduction and explain an algorithm “PuRet” which emphasizes the SHITSUKAN of the object surface. Attention is paid to the behavior of the pupil when paying attention to the SHITSUKAN of the object surface and it was discovered that observing the SHITSUKAN with attention to it causes pupil contraction and by applying this finding to retinal response characteristics, a SHITSUKAN emphasis algorithm PuRet was developed. We show that by applying PuRet to current digital color images, we can generate an image emphasizing the SHITSUKAN of the object perceived from the image.
We evaluated a method for building a psychophysically based model of graininess perception for a device-independent graininess-reproduction system. The model was developed through experiments that explored the relationship between physical parameters of graininess objects, subjective rating, and the maximum luminance of the displays used to present the objects. The graininess model was generated via multiple regression analysis of the parameters and was used to calculate curved surfaces for which graininess perception was equalized. Even if the values of maximum luminance on the display is changed in the model, the value of graininess under the changed luminance is hold by changing the physical parameters of graininess generation in the model. We found that the proposed model and process for device independent graininess reproduction were effective for our adopted displays with various maximum luminance.
Ink-jet printers have been used for industrial for a while and printing on white paper using color ink has lost its “something new, something different”. “Something new, something different” =In order to create high added value, we need to look more than color information. In other words, a new factor is necessary to make people curious.
High value added printing is an epoch-making technology that can solve this situation. Various methods using special ink have been proposed by each company. With the development of high value added printing, conventional 2D printing will be 3D printing, feel more premium, change into more attractive, and able to rank up the texture's expressions.
In this paper, I will explain the transition and the latest trend of inkjet printing technology that produces high value added printing, with examples of our company.
Two-dimensional codes have often been used for retrieving information such as URLs from printed matter including magazines or advertisements by using a cellular phone or a smartphone. In the two-dimensional codes the QR code is very popular. However, since the two-dimensional codes have the appearance of random patterns, their use deteriorates the appearance of the printed matter. Therefore, the embedding of information in printed images for data retrieval has attracted attention. The embedding technique has been based on digital watermarking. From a technical viewpoint, the severe effect of printers or image capture devices should be considered. In this paper, we will present an overview of such a technique, including its requirements, its technological issues, and the several proposed methods, including our proposed methods.
A barcode system is invented as a method for obtaining information from printed matter and it is used for article management. Logistics management has been dramatically improved by this technology. After that, a QR code system developed by DENSO WAVE was made with the intention of increasing the capacity of the barcodes and making the reading faster. Currently it is used not only for logistics management, but also for mobile phones to read it. As it is being used as an open source, it is utilized to obtain information in various places.
For these two codes, we have newly developed an invisible code named “Screen Code”. The merit of invisibility is due to confidentiality. In other words, it is most suitable for strengthening security that adds information so that nobody knows it.
The disadvantage of not seeing is that you do not know that it is there. However, it is possible to make this disadvantage visible, so we think that we can solve it.
Smartphone reading type has been developed since 2016 and it began to be compared with QR code. This time, I would like to consider the division of living with QR code in particular.
Performance of organic optoelectronic devices fabricated using organic semiconducting multilayers strongly depends on structure and electronic structure at organic semiconductor-related interfaces. For example, designing donor/acceptor (D/A) interfaces that can efficiently generate free carriers is an attractive research target for organic photovoltaics. However, the microscopic understanding of many physical phenomena at the interfaces has remained an open question up to now. This article shows examples of the fundamental studies on organic molecule/metal and D/A interface by means of surface science technique.
We describe “Elemental analysis method” of metallic cross-sectional microstructure by EPMA, Electron Probe Micro-Analyzer.
We describe the “X-ray spectroscope” as most important parts and a location of “X-ray spectroscope” in the EPMA. Effect of a asperity and irregularity at the surface of analyzed specimen on a quality of an elemental analysis results are described. And we described the effect of location relationship between brazed interface at the analyzed specimen surface and “X-ray spectroscope” on a quality of an elemental analysis results.