During the development of transparent electrochromic devices, which are based on electrochemical deposition of Ag nanoparticles on ITO substrates and available for exhibiting reversible changes in their optical condition (transparent, black, and mirror) and in their color indication (yellow, magenta, cyan and red, blue), a new green color indication could be achieved with Ag nanoparticles formed by a pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage method instead of conventional constant voltage and 2-step voltage method. While the light absorption bands in blue and red regions that are required for the green indication was brought about by the excitation of the surface plasmon resonances in Ag nanoparticles and their coupling between adjacent nanoparticles, Ag nanoparticles for the green indication are larger in average size than those for the blue indication, and did not contain smaller nanoparticles, since PWM method was associated with the process to dissolve smaller nanoparticles during Ag nanoparticle deposition.
Uniform color space is a color space matching with human visual system. Therefore many digital watermarking method employed it. However, watermark bits are not always correctly extracted if the RGB values transformed from uniform color space are adjusted to integer values by rounded-up although this procedure is often employed. It is because the transformation from uniform color space to RGB color space is non-linear. The proposed method solves this problem by using color transformation table. Moreover, the proposed method improves processing speed by changing search procedure and dividing color transformation table appropriately. Experimental results clarify the problem of existing methods and the performance of the proposed method.
Additive manufacturing systems were invented about 30 years ago, and their products have been used in the field of various industries for utilizing our life, such as design, production and life science. Reentry the systems are called “3D-Printer” to give evolutional technology for future production. In this paper the current status of the materials for these systems were reviewed. The properties of the 3D object, output of the 3D printer, is not enough level as common industrial products. Development and enhancement of the materials for each 3D printer is strongly needed to become common technology.
3D printing or Additive manufacturing (AM) has received a lot of attention as a new production tool. Among many kinds of AM technologies, Laser sintering type AM system has a wide range of applications from plastic parts to metal parts. As the layer on layer building process eliminates the restrictions of machining and the mechanical properties of built parts are applicable for the final parts, it becomes possible to manufacture ultralight and/or complex parts which cannot be manufactured by traditional manufacturing process such as injection molding, foundry or machining. This article describes the latest status of applications and materials of additive manufacturing by laser sintering. Issues and necessary materials for the further expansion of applications are also discussed.
At Solidscape we develop and deliver 3D solutions for advanced manufacturing. With our 3D printers and materials customers can create high-precision wax patterns to be cast in metal, to be used for mold making (RTV) or even to be pressed in ceramics for dental restorations. Solidscape's Model is the build material for use in the Solidscape® printers by precision-oriented applications. Model is Solidscape's most durable material ever. This increased durability enables designers to incorporate even more intricate details with thinner walls into their work to produce lighter weight finished products that can meet their pricing strategy. Together with Solidscape's Support automatically generates a structure to protect the part during the build process with the Solidscape® printers for high precision applications. This saves on labor by eliminating the need for CAD designers to configure support structures during the design of new pieces. Once the printing is completed, labor is saved again because the Soliscape's Support material completely dissolves away in a liquid solution, leaving a clean wax part without the need for manual refining. This hands-free process can safely deliver the most delicately featured and intricate wax masters that are immediately ready for investment casting or mold making.
This paper focuses on the polymer-based 3D printers available now in 3D printing market;such as Selective Laser Sintering, Ink-jet printing, and Fused Deposition Modeling, and presents its current status as well as the characteristics of its various materials. A clear exposition of current status and future prospects of the additive manufacturing using 3D digital data we've been engaged on and its inescapable agenda of the materials to be drawn from its users are given throughout the paper.
Powder bed fusion system (Selective leaser sintering system) is receiving high level of attention not only due to its ability to rapidly prepare prototypes but also as an efficient process for high-mix low-volume production. It is capable of custom produce highly complex shaped parts, which typically cannot be released from mold. The Parts produced by Polyamide (Nylon) 12 are indeed the most suitable material for “real usage”. Many Polyamide 12 grades have been developed for meeting real usage requirements of market. Although there are developments for higher temperature resistance materials, Polyamide 12 will still be the main material to be used for this process in the future.
In order to fabricate 3D complicated tissues and functional organs artificially, various manufacturing technologies have been developed in tissue engineering field, such as conventional scaffold based approaches, cell culture in designed molds, cell sheet technology that is the laminating of the cell sheets. Recently, cell spheroids and cell fibers have been produced by culturing cells in micro-scaled wells and by using micro fluidic devices fabricated by MEMS. Those are supposed to be useful biological parts to assemble large tissues. Such manufacturing-based approaches are called biofabrication, biomanufacturing and bioassembling. Among those promising technologies, in recent days, bio 3D printer has been focused most highly. It is because 3D printer technology has a big potential to position several biological materials including living cells precisely in 3D space based on the 3D CAD data, as the printing technologies have enabled to print several materials precisely in 2D. In this paper, we introduce several kinds of bio 3D printers.