Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Volume 10 , Issue 5
Showing 1-10 articles out of 10 articles from the selected issue
  • Kuniyoshi Makino
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 292-299
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Association of school absence with air pollution from suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nitrogen dioxide was analyzed in areas around arterial roads for five years, from 1993 to 1997. The prevalence of absence was calculated using the data for school absence in two schools around arterial roads, one of which is near a crossing (Sch.A), and the other is adjacent to an arterial road (Sch.B). Although the results from annual correlation analyses did not indicate common findings for five years or in the two schools, the prevalence of absence correlated positively with SPM, nitrogen dioxide, or relative humidity, and negatively with atmospheric temperature. As the results from multiple regression analyses, atmospheric temperature in Sch.A was adopted as the optimum explanatory variable, whereas SPM and relative humidity were considered in Sch.B. Odds ratios for the prevalence of absence to SPM were elevated and were significant in Sch.B, when using a quintile method. The other odds ratios for the air pollutants were not significant, but exceeded 1. When the data were classified by day of the week, significant associations of the prevalence of absence were observed with atmospheric temperature in Sch.A and with SPM in Sch.B. The slope of the regressive equations by day of the week became steeper with the day in Sch.B. SPM was weakly associated with the prevalence of absence in Sch.A and was closely associated in Sch.B according to the optimum variables selected from the multiple regression analyses by day of the week.
    J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 292-299
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  • Yoko Kinoshita, Hideaki Tsukuma, Wakiko Ajiki, Noriko Kinoshita, Akira ...
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 300-304
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Study purpose: To examine whether adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer increases the risk for second primaries, and whether smoking and drinking increase the risk.
    Subjects and methods: 1, 631 patients who were newly diagnosed with gastric cancer and underwent curative operation at Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases during 1978-92. Incidence of second primaries were examined through linkage to Osaka Cancer Registry as of the end of December 1995. Observed number of second primaries (0) was compared with the expected according to the incidence in general population (E). Proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard rate ratio (HR) for second primaries.
    Results: 149 second primaries were observed. Seventeen cases, detected within 2 months after diagnosis of gastric cancer, were excluded. O/E ratio was 1.13 for adjuvant chemotherapy, 0.93 for immuno-chemotherapy, and 0.78 for immunotherapy, while 1.14 for operation only (not significant). Age-, sex-, and stage-adjusted HR was 1.02 (95% C.I. 0.69-1.50) for chemotherapy, 0.80 (0.41-1.57) for immuno-chemotherapy, and 0.60 (0.08-4.34) for immunotherapy, as compared with the risk for operation only. Among males, HR for current smokers vs. never smokers was 1.82 (1.02-3.26).
    Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer did not significantly increase the risk for second primaries, while smoking elevated it. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 300-304
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  • Takashi Ohida, Tomofumi Sone, Yumiko Mochizuki, Takeshi Kawaguchi, Mas ...
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 305-309
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We investigated the relationship between the prevalence of smoking in females and various social factors, such as household size. Ten thousand and sixty-nine subjects over 20 years of age were randomly selected from the general population of Mie Prefecture. The results showed that the habit of smoking was significantly associated with household size in women (P<0.01), but not in men. Regarding household size, current smoking rate of women aged 20-59 who live in three-generation household was lower than those who live in others. Therefore, the steady replacement of the traditional three-generation household by smaller households in Japan may lead to an increase in the number of young women who smoke.
    J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 305-309
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  • Kazunori Shibata, Masaki Moriyama, Tetsuhito Fukushima, Akihiko Kaetsu ...
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 310-316
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is well known as a precancerous lesion of the stomach, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection increases the risk of CAG. While recent studies have reported that green tea consumption decreases the risk of gastric cancer, there has been no study analyzing the relationship between green tea consumption and the both risks H. pylori infection and CAG. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 636 subjects living in a farming village in Japan to examine the relationship among green tea consumption, H. pylori infection, and CAG. Smoking, alcohol drinking, consumption of four beverages, including green tea, and of five foods were investigated as lifestyle factors that may affect H. pylori infection and CAG. The measurement of H. pylori-IgG antibodies was used to define H. pylori infection, and serum pepsinogens were used to define of CAG. The unconditional logistic regression model was used for analyzing each odds ratio (OR). H. pylori infection was positively associated with the risk of CAG (OR = 3.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.59-5.36). High green tea consumption (more than 10 cups per day) was negatively associated with the risk of CAG, even after adjustment for H. pylori infection and lifestyle factors associated with green tea consumption (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43-0.93). These results support the hypothesis that high green tea consumption prevents CAG. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 310-316
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  • Motoi Nishi, Hirotsugu Miyake, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Youhei Goto, Toshirou ...
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 317-320
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Employing the vital statistics from January 1, 1979 to December 31, 1994 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, we investigated the relationship between suicide (ICD 9 code, El 15) and days of the week. In one day 1.97 males and 0.98 females committed suicide on average. On Saturdays the number of suicides per day was the smallest. On Mondays it was the highest. When the days were classified into (1) a holiday, (2) the day before a holiday, (3) the day after a holiday (4) the day both before and after a holiday and (5) others, the rate of suicide was the lowest in the days before a holiday. In the days after a holiday, however, the rate was the highest. The same tendency was also noted when the subjects were classified into several subgroups from the viewpoint of ages, seasons or calender years. The time relation of holidays seemed to have something to do with the intention to commit suicide.
    J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 317-320
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  • Toshiyuki Ojima, Izumi Oki, Shinichi Tanihara, Yosikazu Nakamura, Hiro ...
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 321-327
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the study is to confirm repeatability of the series of self-administrating questions, which can be applied in large community populations. In 1994 and 1995, two surveys were conducted for the residents at Minamikawachi, Japan with a same questionnaire. The number of respondents for the both surveys was 887. Kappa statistics of all items of the series of questions for aging level indices were significantly high. Kappa statistics were over 0.4, and repeatability is good or excellent in 28 items of all the 45 items. The statistics of the items for medical treatments of chronic diseases were high, in such as diabetes (0.846) and hypertension (0.604). For activity of daily livings, such as shopping (0.619), kappa statistics were also high, but that of eating (0.162) was low. The statistics of subjective symptoms were moderate, however, that of impairment of hearing (0.672) was high, and that of decline of interest in opposite sex (0.256) were low. On the other hand, kappa statistics of acute diseases were low, in such as bone fracture (0.073). Correlation coefficients of the comprehensive aging level indices are around 0.6 among the people of 65 years old or older. In conclusion, the repeatability of the questions and indices were good, and they are appropriate to apply to communities.
    J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 321-327
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  • Tomohiro Saito, Seiichiro Nanri, Ikuo Saito, Toshihito Furukawa
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 328-334
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Incidence of stroke differs between men and women and it increases nearly exponentially with age. Therefore, assessment of family history of stroke disregarding sex and age of family members results in bias or misclassification. In this study the effects of sex and age on the positivity of the past history were analyzed numerically.
    Sex- and age-specific proportion of a positive history of stroke among 24, 007 family members was obtained from a questionnaire survey of 2, 316 high school students. By analyzing the sex- and age-specific proportion with the logistic regression model odds ratios resulting from sex and age difference were estimated. The odds ratio for sex difference was 2.458 (95% confidence interval: 2.067-2.924) and odds ratio for age difference was 1.064 (95% confidence interval: 1.058-1.070). This indicated that a positive history of stroke was 2.458 times higher in male members than in female members of the same age and that a positive history increased by (1.064)Y, where y was age difference in years. Potential bias or misclassification resulting from disregarding sex and age can be substantial. Some measures to control for sex and age of family members are required in assessing the family history.
    J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 328-334
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  • Fumio Matsubara, Maki Kida, Akiko Tamakoshi, Kenji Wakai, Takashi Kawa ...
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 335-343
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to examine the effect of maternal active and passive smoking on fetal growth, we carried out a population-based cohort study. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 15, 207 women who notified their pregnancy from April, 1989 to March, 1991. A total of 7, 411 mother-singleton infant pairs were analyzed in this study. Paternal smoking status and maternal hours exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were used as indicators of passive smoking.
    Infants born to active smoking mothers were 96 g lighter, on an average, at birth than those born to non-smokers, and the relative risk for intrauterine growth retardation was 1.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-3.04) among active smoking mothers. Infants with smoking fathers weighted 11 g lighter, on an average, than those with non-smoking fathers, and mean birth weight of infants was reduced by 19 g among mothers exposed to ETS. The relative risk for intrauterine growth retardation in non-smoking pregnants with a smoking husband and those exposed to ETS was 0.95 (95% Cl = 0.72-1.26) and 0.95 (95% Cl = 0.71-1.26), respectively. Our findings indicated an adverse effect of maternal active smoking on fetal growth in Japanese pregnant population, but with small influence of maternal passive smoking.
    J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 335-343
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  • Takashi Ohida, Kazuo Kawahara, Yoneatsu Osaki, Tomofumi Sone, AMM Kama ...
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 344-348
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The study was carried to investigate on the actual conditions related to smoking of the nurses working in all medical institutions under a regional medical association in Mie Prefecture (regional medical institutions). Results obtained were as follows: smoking prevalence of female nurses is considered to be equal to that of the general female population in Japan. About 35% of the nurses with the smoking habit had an opinion to quit it, and about 45% of them practiced it seriously. Nearly 80% nurses favored restriction. In the way of thinking related to smoking, more than 90% of the nurses answered that women should not smoke for the health of the fetuses and infants, while only about 30% of them agreed to stop smoking working as members of the medical staff. The survey suggests that anti-smoking program is necessary to develop for smoking nurses working at medical facilities. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 344-348
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  • Chikako Kiyohara
    2000 Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages 349-360
    Published: 2000
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Environmental factors such as smoking cigarette, diets and alcohol may interact with genetic factors, which put one individual at a greater or lesser risk of a particular cancer than another. Advances in molecular biology have allowed many allelic variants of several drug metabolizing enzymes so that individuals with the susceptible genotypes can be determined easily. Many pieces of research have focused on the relationship between the distribution of polymorphic variants of different forms of the metabolic enzymes and colorectal cancer susceptibility because of importance roles of the metabolic enzymes in the activation of many procarcinogens or chemicals. In this respect five groups of the metabolic enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 Al /CYPIA2, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), N-acetyltransferases (NATs), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), have been discussed here. A positive association between development of colorectal cancer and the mutant homozygous genotype in Mspl polymorphism of CYPIA1 gene has been reported in Japanese in Hawaii. The relation between genetic polymorphisms in GSTs and cancer risk has also taken an interest. At least nine studies have demonstrated the relation between the GST polymorphisms and colorectal cancer. Two of these studies suggested an increased risk of approximately 2-fold among those with the GSTM1 null genotype, while others found no risk increase. None of these studies examined the combined effect of CYPIA1 and GST polymorphisms. Either NAT2 or CYPIA2 alone have been slightly associated with colorectal cancer. When CYPIA2 and NAT2 phenotype were combined, a significant increased risk (odds ratio of 2.8) was seen among well done meat consumers with the rapid-rapid phenotype. Two published studies have found that the risk of colorectal cancer can be enhanced (2-3 fold) in alcohol drinkers with heterozygous genotype of ALDH2 in two Japanese populations recently. Findings from three published studies suggested that the mutant genotype of MTHFR inversely slightly associated with colorectal cancer.
    Although some of genetic polymorphisms discussed here have not shown statistically significant increase/decrease in risk, individuals with differing genotypes may have different susceptibilities to colorectal cancer, based on environmental factors. Further studies are needed to identify risk groups more specific and to determine factors of importance in colorectal cancer development. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : 349-360
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