Background: Limited epidemiological evidence has suggested a positive relationship between night shift work and the risk of cancer. Herein, we investigated the prospective association between different forms of work schedule and the risk of numerous cancers and all-cause cancer among Japanese men and women.
Methods: This cohort study included 45,390 working men and women aged 40–79 years and registered in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study). The Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident cancer among those who reported engagement in night work and rotating shift work for their longest occupations compared with day work.
Results: Within a median follow-up duration of 14.2 years, 2,283 (9.4%) men and 1,309 (4.5%) women developed cancer. Among men, rotating shift work was significantly associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer (HR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.42–4.31) and decreased risk of liver cancer (HR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30–0.98). Also, rotating shift work tended to be associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer (HR 1.42; 95% CI, 0.95–2.12). Night work and rotating shift work were not related to the risk of all-cause cancer in either sex.
Conclusion: Rotating shift work might contribute to the increased risk of esophageal cancer and prostate cancer and the decreased risk of liver cancer among Japanese men.
Background: The incidence and prevalence of endometriosis remain unclear due to diagnostic difficulties. Especially, there has been little information regarding the population-based epidemiology of endometriosis. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of endometriosis in Korea based on the health insurance claims data.
Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, which correspond to approximately 1 million Korean populations from 2002 to 2013. Patients aged 15–54 years were selected, and the prevalence and incidence of endometriosis were estimated by time and age groups.
Results: The age-adjusted prevalence rate of endometriosis also increased from 2.12 per 1,000 persons (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01–2.24) in 2002 to 3.56 per 1,000 persons (95% CI, 3.40–3.71) in 2013. The average adjusted incidence showed no statistically significant increase. However, the age-specific incidence of the 15–19 and 20–24 years age groups increased significantly from 0.24 and 1.29 per 1,000 persons in 2003 to 2.73 and 2.71 per 1,000 persons in 2013 (R2 = 0.93 and 0.77, P < 0.001), while the incidence rate of the age group 40–44 and 45–49 years decreased from 2.36 and 1.72 per 1,000 persons in 2003 to 0.81 and 0.27 per 1,000 persons in 2013 (R2 = 0.83 and 0.89, P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence and incidence of endometriosis in Korean women were lower than that of previous reports in high-risk population studies. Furthermore, we found a significant increase in the diagnosis of endometriosis in younger age groups.
Background: Obesity and its health consequences will dominate health care systems in many countries during the next decades. However, the body mass index (BMI) optimum in relation to all-cause mortality is still a matter of debate.
Material and Methods: Data of the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program (VHM&PP, 1985–2005) and data provided by the Main Association of Austrian Social Security Institutions (MAASSI, 2005–2015) were analyzed. Information was available on age, sex, smoking status, measured height and weight, and mortality. Generalized additive models were used to model mortality as a function of BMI, calendar time, age, and follow-up.
Results: In MAASSI (N = 282,216, 46.0% men), men and women were on average 2.7 years older than in VHM&PP (N = 185,361, 46.1% men). Average BMI was slightly higher in men (26.1 vs 25.7 kg/m2) but not in women (24.6 vs 24.7 kg/m2). We found an interactive effect of age and follow-up on the BMI optimum. Over age 35 years in men and 55 years in women, the BMI optimum decreased with length of follow-up. While keeping covariates fixed, BMI optimum increased slightly between 1985 and 2015 in men and women, 24.9 (95% CI, 23.9–25.9) to 26.4 (95% CI, 25.3–27.3), and 22.4 (95% CI, 21.7–23.1) to 23.3 (95% CI, 22.6–24.5) kg/m2, respectively.
Conclusion: Age and length of follow-up have a pronounced effect on the BMI associated with the lowest all-cause mortality. After controlling for age and length of follow-up, the BMI optimum increased slightly over 30 years in this large study sample.
Background: Discrepancies between parents’ reports of paternal parenting have been gaining attention, but epidemiological evidence is scarce in Asia. This study aimed to clarify agreement/discrepancy between paternal and maternal recognition of paternal parenting and the association between actual paternal parenting time and background factors.
Methods: Data from couples whose children attended 4-month child health check-ups in Fukushima City were analyzed (N = 509). Based on paternal recognition of paternal parenting (PRPP) and maternal recognition of paternal support (MRPS), couples were classified into four groups. Each group’s paternal household work and parenting time were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed to investigate the association between agreement/discrepancy and background factors of children and parents.
Results: Frequency of positive agreement (PRPP+ and MRPS+) was 83.9%, whereas negative agreement (PRPP− and MRPS−) was 2.6%. As for discrepancy, PRPP+ and MRPS− was 8.4% and PRPP− and MRPS+ was 5.1%. Fathers’ total median parenting time was 2 (weekdays) and 6 (weekends) hours, and showed significant differences among the four groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that compared to positive agreement, maternal mental health condition and pregnancy intention were significantly associated with the discrepancy PRPP+ and MRPS−, paternal mental health condition and marital satisfaction with the discrepancy PRPP− and MRPS+, and maternal mental health condition with negative agreement.
Conclusions: We identified differences in parenting time and mental health characteristics among couples depending on agreement/discrepancy in recognition of paternal parenting. Assessing both parents’ profiles is necessary in clinical practice to promote paternal participation in childcare.
Background: Inflammation is emerging as a potential mechanism of cervical carcinogenesis. However, few studies have investigated the association between host inflammatory status and the natural course of cervical precursor lesion. The aim of this study was to assess the probability of LSIL regression, associated with an inflammatory biomarker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).
Methods: In a longitudinal cohort study, female participants were examined annually or biannually using cervical cytology between 2006 and 2015. Incident LSIL cases were included in the analysis, with regression defined as at least one consecutive normal cytologic result. A total of 520 women aged 22–64 years were followed up for LSIL regression. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for LSIL regression were estimated using a parametric proportional hazards model.
Results: During 827.5 person-years of follow-up, 486 out of 520 subjects (93.5%) showed LSIL regression. After adjusting several important potential confounders, a higher quartile of hs-CRP levels was significantly associated with a lower rate of regression (for quartile 4 vs quartile 1, inverse HR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04–1.69; P for trend = 0.028).
Conclusions: The low rate of spontaneous regression recorded in women with higher hs-CRP lends support to the role of the perturbated host inflammatory status in cervical carcinogenesis, and suggests that hs-CRP level could help monitor LSIL.
Background: The impact of weight change, physical activity, and sedentary behavior on endometrial cancer risk among the Asian population is uncertain. We investigated the association of those factors with endometrial cancer risk among Japanese women with a low body mass index level.
Methods: We performed a large-scale nationwide cohort study consisting of 33,801 female participants aged 40–79 years. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident endometrial cancer.
Results: The mean body mass index of participants was 22.8 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 14.8 years, 79 participants developed endometrial cancer. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, body mass index over 23.0 kg/m2 was linearly associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. The HR per 5 kg/m2 increase was 1.80 (95% CI, 1.28–2.54). Weight increment ≥+5 kg since age 20 was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer compared to a weight change of −5 to <+5 kg (multivariable HR 1.96; 95% CI, 1.12–3.40). Compared with females who were mainly sitting at the worksite, those who were mainly standing and moving were at lower risk; the multivariable HRs were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.39–1.59) and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22–0.97), respectively (P for trend = 0.042). Hours of physical exercise, daily walking, and TV viewing were not associated with endometrial cancer risk.
Conclusions: Overweight and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, while worksite physical activity was inversely associated with the risk.
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is more prevalent in women with age. Comorbidities are prevalent in OA patients. In this study, we conducted a follow-up study to evaluate whether women with OA are at an increased risk of ischemic stroke using insurance claims data of Taiwan.
Methods: We identified 13,520 women with OA aged 20–99 newly diagnosed in 2000–2006 and 27,033 women without OA for comparison, frequency matched by age and diagnosis date. Women with baseline history of hypertension and other disorders associated with stroke were excluded for this study. Incident ischemic stroke was assessed by the end of 2013. A nested case-control analysis was used to identify factors associated with the stroke in the OA cohort.
Results: The incidence rate of ischemic stroke in the OA cohort was 1.5-fold greater than that in comparisons (1.93 versus 1.26 per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.66). The nested case-control analysis showed that stroke cases were twice as likely to develop hypertension during the follow-up period than controls without stroke. The ischemic stroke risk was significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 1.84; 95% CI, 1.37–2.46) and atrial fibrillation (OR 2.25; 95% CI, 1.24–4.09). Ischemic stroke was not associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin.
Conclusion: Women with OA are at an elevated risk of ischemic stroke. A close monitoring of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and other stroke related comorbidities is required for stroke prevention for OA patients.
Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) from partners is a major source of exposure for non-smoking women. However, epidemiological studies have rarely examined social factors associated with continued and indoor smoking among pregnant women’s partners.
Methods: We analyzed data on 6,091 partners of non-smoking pregnant women in the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study. Partners’ age, education, income, workplace SHS exposure (almost never or sometimes, almost every day), and pregnant women’s smoking history (never, quit before pregnancy awareness, quit after pregnancy awareness) were used as social factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of social factors with partners’ continued smoking and indoor smoking.
Results: Among 2,432 smoking partners, 2,237 continued to smoke after pregnancy awareness. Workplace SHS exposure was associated with increased risk of partners’ continued smoking: the odds ratio of workplace SHS exposure almost every day compared with almost never or sometimes was 2.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.52–2.83). Women’s quitting smoking after—but not before—pregnancy awareness was associated with decreased risk of partners’ continued smoking: the odds ratio of women’s quitting after pregnancy awareness compared with never smoking was 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.40–0.80). About one-third of partners who continued to smoke did so indoors. Older age, lower education, workplace SHS exposure, and women’s quitting smoking after pregnancy awareness were associated with increased risk of partners’ indoor smoking.
Conclusions: Workplace SHS exposure and pregnant women’s smoking history were associated with continued smoking and indoor smoking among partners of non-smoking pregnant women.
Background: The job environment has changed a lot during the period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the association between work-related stress and aggravation of pre-existing disease in workers during the first state of COVID-19 emergency in Japan.
Methods: Data were obtained from a large internet survey conducted between August 25 and September 30, 2020 in Japan. Participants who reported that they had a job as well as current history of disease(s) (ie, pre-existing conditions) were included (n = 3,090). Aggravation of pre-existing disease during the state of emergency was self-reported. Work-related stress from April 2020 (since the state of COVID-19 emergency) was assessed according to a job demand–control model. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association.
Results: Aggravation of pre-existing diseases was reported by 334 participants (11%). The numbers of participants with high demand and low control were 112 (18%) and 100 (14%), respectively. Compared to medium demand, high demand was significantly associated with aggravation of pre-existing diseases (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–2.42). Low control compared to medium control was also significantly associated with aggravation of pre-existing diseases (odds ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.92).
Conclusion: Work-related stress during the first state of COVID-19 emergency was associated with aggravation of pre-existing disease during that period.
Background: To explore how sexual activity was impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown measures in the general adult population.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6,003 Italian adults aged 18–74 years who were representative of the Italian general population. Study subjects were recruited at the time of the nationwide stay-at-home order (from April 27 to May 3, 2020). We identified characteristics associated with decreased frequency of sex during lockdown, differentiating between cohabiting and non-cohabiting subjects.
Results: Over one-third (35.3%) of Italians reported to have changed their sexual activity during lockdown (8.4% increased and 26.9% decreased). When focusing on cohabitants (N = 3,949, 65.8%), decreased sexual activity (20.7%) was more frequently reported by men (22.3%; compared to women, multivariable odds ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.44), younger subjects (P for trend <0.001), more educated subjects (P for trend = 0.004), subjects living in smaller houses (P for trend = 0.003), and those reporting longer time spent outdoors before the lockdown (P for trend <0.001).
Conclusions: COVID-19 lockdown drastically altered people’s day-to-day life and is likely to have impacted lifestyle habits and behavioral risk factors, including sexual attitudes and practice. This is the first national population-level study exploring changes in sexual life in this COVID-19 era. As we report sexual practice to have been affected by lockdown restrictions, we suggest that the mental health, social, and other determinants of these changes are to be explored beyond imposed social distancing.
Background: Cancer incidence in Fukushima Prefecture, especially thyroid cancer, has been a public concern, since the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011; however, cancer incidence for Fukushima residents before and after the accident based on a population-based cancer registry (PBCR) has not been known worldwide.
Methods: We obtained the corrected-incidence data for invasive cancers newly diagnosed from 2008 through 2015 from the Fukushima Cancer Registry. We checked data quality indicators for PBCRs to confirm comparability. We calculated age-standardized annual incidence and mortality of cancer for all-site, thyroid, and leukemia by calendar year and sex, as we did for Tochigi Prefecture and all of Japan as references for comparison. We applied joinpoint trend analysis to test an apparent trend in incidence and mortality.
Results: The corrected incidence data from the Fukushima Cancer Registry had sufficient quality comparable to other PBCRs. For the age-standardized annual incidence by sex and cancer type in Fukushima and Tochigi, we did not detect any joinpoint in trend with statistical significance. Cancer incidence gently increased from 2008 through 2015 nationwide. Incidence and mortality of cancer for Fukushima before the accident was very close to that for Tochigi.
Conclusions: We interpreted the incidence statistics of cancer for Fukushima residents from 2008 through 2015. Our results will provide fundamental statistics for subsequent researchers to assess the relationship between the disaster and cancer incidence among Fukushima residents in the long term.
Background: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene–environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants.
Methods: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history and collected peripheral blood samples.
Results: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [standard deviation, 9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65–69 years for men and 60–64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women.
Conclusions: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.