Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Volume 31 , Issue 4
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
Original Article
  • Yuri Ito, Isao Miyashiro, Takashi Ishikawa, Kohei Akazawa, Keisuke Fuk ...
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 241-248
    Published: April 05, 2021
    Released: April 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 11, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: Although the incidence and mortality have decreased, gastric cancer (GC) is still a public health issue globally. An international study reported higher survival in Korea and Japan than other countries, including the United States. We examined the determinant factors of the high survival in Japan compared with the United States.

    Methods: We analysed data on 78,648 cases from the nationwide GC registration project, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA), from 2004–2007 and compared them with 16,722 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER), a United States population-based cancer registry data from 2004–2010. We estimated 5-year relative survival and applied a multivariate excess hazard model to compare the two countries, considering the effect of number of lymph nodes (LNs) examined.

    Results: Five-year relative survival in Japan was 81.0%, compared with 45.0% in the United States. After controlling for confounding factors, we still observed significantly higher survival in Japan. Among N2 patients, a higher number of LNs examined showed better survival in both countries. Among N3 patients, the relationship between number of LNs examined and differences in survival between the two countries disappeared.

    Conclusion: Although the wide differences in GC survival between Japan and United States can be largely explained by differences in the stage at diagnosis, the number of LNs examined may also help to explain the gaps between two countries, which is related to stage migration.

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  • Kyueun Lee, Edward L Giovannucci, Jihye Kim
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 249-258
    Published: April 05, 2021
    Released: April 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 02, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: The effect of smoking and sex on the relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components has not been investigated.

    Methods: A total of 5,629 Korean adults aged 40–69 years without MetS were recruited at baseline. Alcohol consumption was assessed biennially, and participants were classified as never, light, moderate, or heavy drinkers. Smoking status was examined at baseline and categorized into non-smokers and current smokers. Risk of incident MetS and its components according to alcohol consumption was examined by smoking status and sex using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.

    Results: During a follow-up of 12 years, 2,336 participants (41.5%) developed MetS. In non-smokers, light or moderate alcohol drinkers had a lower risk of developing MetS, abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-C compared with never drinkers. Heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk of incident elevated blood pressure (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–2.06; P = 0.020) in men and abdominal obesity (HR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.06–3.27; P = 0.030) in women. However, in smokers, the inverse association of light or moderate alcohol consumption with hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal obesity was not present, whereas a positive association between heavy alcohol consumption and hyperglycemia (HR 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07–1.80; P = 0.014) was observed.

    Conclusions: Smoking status and sex strongly affects the association between long-term alcohol consumption and MetS and its components by the amount of alcohol consumed.

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  • Nobuhiro Sato, Tasuku Matsuyama, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Yasuo Hirose
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 259-264
    Published: April 05, 2021
    Released: April 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Background: Although bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) plays an essential role in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care, little is known about the bystander-patient relationship in the actual setting. This study aimed to assess the disparities in BCPR performed by a family member and that performed by a non-family member.

    Methods: This population-based observational study involved all adult patients with witnessed OHCAs of medical origin in Niigata City, Japan, between January 2012 and December 2016, according to the Utstein style. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the association between the witnessing person and the probability of providing BCPR. Next, among those who received BCPR, we sought to investigate the difference between BCPR performed by family and that performed by non-family members in terms of whether those who witnessed the arrests actually performed BCPR.

    Results: During the study period, 818 were eligible for this analysis, with 609 (74.4%) patients witnessed by family and 209 (25.6%) patients witnessed by non-family members. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that OHCA patients witnessed by family were less likely to receive BCPR compared to those witnessed by non-family members (260/609 [42.7%] versus 119/209 [56.9%], P = 0.017). Among the witnessed patients for whom BCPR was performed, the proportion of BCPR actually performed by a family member was lower than that performed by a non-family member (242/260 [93.1%] versus 116/119 [97.5%], P = 0.011).

    Conclusions: In this community-based observational study, we found that a witnessing family member is less likely to perform BCPR than a witnessing non-family member.

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  • Yukitsugu Komazawa, Hiroshi Murayama, Noboru Harata, Kiyoshi Takami, G ...
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 265-271
    Published: April 05, 2021
    Released: April 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Background: Previous studies have reported that financial strain has deleterious effects on healthy behaviors. Moreover, social support is expected to mitigate these effects, but few studies have investigated the effects of exercise; thus, the investigation can deepen our understanding of the relationship between social support and physical activity/exercise. We examined the relationship between financial strain and frequency of exercise, and the role of social support in this relationship in old age.

    Methods: Data came from a 19-year longitudinal study conducted between 1987 and 2006 of Japanese adults aged 60 or more with up to seven repeated observations. Frequency of exercise was assessed using a four-point scale. Financial strain was measured using the responses to three questions related to financial condition. This study considered both emotional and instrumental supports. Covariates included demographic and socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and health condition.

    Results: The analysis included 3,911 participants. The results of a generalized estimation equation model showed that among females, greater financial strain in the previous wave was associated with reduced frequency of exercise (b = −0.018; 95% confidence interval, −0.032 to −0.004), and that as financial strain increased, those who received more instrumental support engaged in less exercise than those who received less support (b = −0.009; 95% confidence interval, −0.017 to −0.002). These relationships were not observed among males.

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence that financial strain is negatively correlated with frequency of exercise among older females. In addition, instrumental support is negatively correlated with frequency of exercise among females under financial strain.

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  • Yukihiro Sato, Eiji Yoshioka, Yasuaki Saijo, Toshinobu Miyamoto, Kazuo ...
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 272-279
    Published: April 05, 2021
    Released: April 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: Population impact of modifiable risk factors on orofacial clefts is still unknown. This study aimed to estimate population attributable fractions (PAFs) of modifiable risk factors for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) and cleft palate only (CP) in Japan.

    Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, which recruited pregnant women from 2011 to 2014. We estimated the PAFs of maternal alcohol consumption, psychological distress, maternal active and passive smoking, abnormal body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 and ≥25 kg/m2), and non-use of a folic acid supplement during pregnancy for nonsyndromic CL±P and CP in babies.

    Results: A total of 94,174 pairs of pregnant women and their single babies were included. Among them, there were 146 nonsyndromic CL±P cases and 41 nonsyndromic CP cases. The combined adjusted PAF for CL±P of the modifiable risk factors excluding maternal alcohol consumption was 34.3%. Only maternal alcohol consumption was not associated with CL±P risk. The adjusted PAFs for CL±P of psychological distress, maternal active and passive smoking, abnormal BMI, and non-use of a folic acid supplement were 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], −10.7 to 15.1%), 9.9% (95% CI, −7.0 to 26.9%), 10.8% (95% CI, −9.9 to 30.3%), 2.4% (95% CI, −7.5 to 14.0%), and 15.1% (95% CI, −17.8 to 41.0%), respectively. We could not obtain PAFs for CP due to the small sample size.

    Conclusions: We reported the population impact of the modifiable risk factors on CL±P, but not CP. This study might be useful in planning the primary prevention of CL±P.

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  • Ayumi Hashimoto, Kentaro Murakami, Satomi Kobayashi, Hitomi Suga, Sato ...
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 280-286
    Published: April 05, 2021
    Released: April 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 16, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: The disparity of overall diet quality by personal educational attainment has been a public issue. However, it remains unknown which food groups contribute to the disparity. This cross-sectional study assesses which food groups explain associations between education and overall diet quality in Japanese women.

    Methods: A total of 3,788 middle-aged (mean age, 47.7 years) and 2,188 older women (mean age, 74.4 years), who lived in 47 prefectures in Japan, provided data on their education (low, middle, and high) and dietary intakes from a diet history questionnaire. A diet quality score (possible score 0–70) was calculated based on seven food components. Mean diet quality scores, with adjustment for lifestyle and neighborhood variables, were estimated by education using a general linear model, and Dunnett’s multiple comparison was conducted. Additionally, mean scores of each food component were estimated by education and compared using the same manner.

    Results: After adjustment for lifestyle and neighborhood variables, mean diet quality score of high or middle education was higher than low education for both generations. Middle-aged women with high and middle education had higher scores of ‘milk’, ‘snacks, confection, and beverages’, ‘fruits’, and ‘vegetable dishes’ than those with low education. Older women with high and middle education had higher scores of ‘sodium from seasonings’ and ‘fruits’ than those with low education.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that positive associations between education and diet quality are explained by different food groups in middle-aged and older Japanese women, which are independent of lifestyle and neighborhood variables.

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  • Haruki Momma, Kiminori Kato, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawak ...
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 287-296
    Published: April 05, 2021
    Released: April 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: May 16, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: Grip strength reflects systemic muscle strength and mass and is reportedly associated with various metabolic variables. However, its prognostic association with dyslipidemia is unknown. We examined the association of grip strength and other physical fitness markers with the incidence of dyslipidemia among Japanese adults.

    Methods: A total of 16,149 Japanese (6,208 women) individuals aged 20–92 years who underwent a physical fitness test between April 2001 and March 2002 were included in this cohort study. Grip strength, vertical jump, single-leg balance with eyes closed, forward bending, and whole-body reaction time were evaluated at baseline. Dyslipidemia was annually determined based on fasting serum lipid profiles and self-reported dyslipidemia from April 2001 to March 2008.

    Results: During the follow-up period, 4,458 (44.9%) men and 2,461 (39.6%) women developed dyslipidemia. A higher relative grip strength (grip strength/body mass index) was associated with a lower incidence of dyslipidemia among both men and women (P for trend <0.001). Compared with those for the first septile, the hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the seventh septile were 0.56 (95% CI, 0.50–0.63) for men and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.58–0.81) for women. Moreover, relative vertical jump (vertical jump strength/body mass index) was also inversely associated with the incidence of dyslipidemia among both men and women (P for trend <0.001). There was no association between other physical fitness and dyslipidemia among both men and women.

    Conclusion: Relative grip strength and vertical jump may be useful risk markers of the incidence of dyslipidemia.

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Short Communication
  • Ryota Sakurai, Hisashi Kawai, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hunkyung Kim, Yutaka Wa ...
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 297-300
    Published: April 05, 2021
    Released: April 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: April 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives: Eating alone is associated with an increased risk of depression symptoms. This association may be confounded by poor social networks. The present study aimed to determine the role of poor social networks in the association of eating alone with depression symptoms, focusing on cohabitation status.

    Methods: Seven hundred and ten community-dwelling older adults were categorized according to their eating style and social network size, evaluated using an abbreviated version of the Lubben Social Network Scale, with poor social network size (defined as the lowest quartile). Living arrangements and depression symptoms, detected using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, were also assessed.

    Results: A mixed-design two-way analysis of covariance (eating style and social network size factors) for the depression scale score, adjusted by covariates, yielded significant effects of social network size and eating style without interaction. Greater depression scores were observed in eating alone and poor social network size. Analysis of participants living with others showed the same results. However, among older adults living alone, only a significant main effect of social network size was observed; poor social network size resulted in greater depression scores irrespective of eating style.

    Conclusions: Poor social network size, and not eating alone, was associated with greater depression symptoms among older adults living alone, whereas both factors may increase depression symptoms among older adults living with others. Poor social network size may show a stronger influence on depression than eating alone in older adults living alone; thus, social network size is an important health indicator.

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