Background: The cost-effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention interventions is critical for their sustained implementation. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the Educació en Alimentació (EdAl) program, a school-based intervention for reducing obesity.
Methods: Total EdAl program implementation costs and per-child costs were estimated. Cost-effectiveness, defined using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), was estimated as the difference between the intervention and control group costs divided by the obesity-related outcome effects for boys (avoided cases of obesity, obesity prevalence, body mass index [BMI], and BMI z-score units) for each group. As a significant difference (4.39%) in the reduction of obesity prevalence between the intervention and control groups was observed for boys in the EdAl program, the data were calculated only for boys.
Results: The intervention cost was 24,246.53 € for 1,550 children (15.64 €/child/3 years) or 5.21 €/child/year. The ICERs/boy were 968.66 € to avoid one case of obesity, 3.6 € to reduce the obesity prevalence by 1%, 44.68 € to decrease BMI by one unit, and 65.16 € to reduce the BMI z-score by one unit.
Conclusions: The cost of reducing the obesity prevalence in boys by 4.39% was 5.21 €/child/year, half the cost proposed by the Spanish Health Ministry, indicating that the EdAl program is cost-effective.
Background: Acrylamide, a probable carcinogen to humans, forms during high temperature cooking. Dietary exposure to acrylamide among the Japanese population is unknown. We aimed to establish and validate a method to assess acrylamide exposure among the Japanese population using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) from the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.
Methods: Validation studies for the FFQ were conducted in 1994 (Cohort I, n = 215) and 1996 (Cohort II, n = 350). The 28-day dietary records (DRs) were collected over 1 year. The FFQ was distributed before and after DR collection. Data for acrylamide exposure were based on reported measurements in Japan, and calculations considered the cooking process for specific vegetables in a home setting. Spearman’s rank correlation and weighted kappa coefficients were calculated from energy-adjusted data.
Results: Mean acrylamide intake levels estimated from DRs for Cohorts I and II were 6.78 (standard deviation [SD], 3.89) µg/day and 7.25 (SD, 3.33) µg/day, and corresponding levels estimated from the FFQ were 7.03 (SD, 4.30) µg/day and 7.14 (SD, 3.38) µg/day, respectively. Deattenuated correlation coefficients for men and women were 0.54 and 0.48 in Cohort I and 0.40 and 0.37 in Cohort II, respectively. Weighted kappa coefficients were over 0.80 in all cases. The main contributing food groups from DRs were beverages, confectioneries, vegetables, potatoes and starches, and cereals.
Conclusions: High kappa values validate the use of FFQ in epidemiological studies. The marked contribution of cooked vegetables indicates the importance of considering household cooking methods in assessing acrylamide intake levels in the Japanese population.
Background: Dengue is a clinically important arthropod-borne viral disease with increasing global incidence. Here we aimed to estimate the prevalence of dengue infections in Khanh Hoa Province, central Viet Nam, and to identify risk factors for infection.
Methods: We performed a stratified cluster sampling survey including residents of 3–60 years of age in Nha Trang City, Ninh Hoa District and Dien Khanh District, Khanh Hoa Province, in October 2011. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) against dengue were analyzed using a rapid test kit. Participants completed a questionnaire exploring clinical dengue incidence, socio-economic status, and individual behavior. A household checklist was used to examine environment, mosquito larvae presence, and exposure to public health interventions.
Results: IgG positivity was 20.5% (urban, 16.3%; rural, 23.0%), IgM positivity was 6.7% (urban, 6.4%; rural, 6.9%), and incidence of clinically compatible dengue during the prior 3 months was 2.8 per 1,000 persons (urban, 1.7; rural, 3.4). For IgG positivity, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–5.81) for mosquito larvae presence in water pooled in old tires and was 3.09 (95% CI, 1.75–5.46) for proximity to a densely inhabited area. For IgM positivity, the AOR was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.50–6.23) for proximity to a densely inhabited area.
Conclusions: Our results indicated rural penetration of dengue infections. Control measures should target densely inhabited areas, and may include clean-up of discarded tires and water-collecting waste.
Background: Maternal pre-pregnancy weight has been reported to be positively associated with offspring weight. The association between maternal weight and offspring weight might be explained by maternal lifestyle. We investigated the strength of the relationship between maternal body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of pregnancy and offspring BMI at several growth stages.
Methods: The source population was all eighth graders registered in all public schools in the city of Fukuroi, Japan, in 2012. Records of maternal anthropometry at the beginning of pregnancy were obtained from the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook. The height and body weight of each student were measured. A regression model was used to assess the association between maternal BMI z-score at the beginning of pregnancy and offspring BMI z-score at various ages.
Results: Of the source population, data from the MCH Handbook were obtained for 480 students. Among males, maternal BMI z-score was not associated with offspring BMI z-score at birth and at age 3 years but was associated with offspring BMI z-score at age 13 years (standardized regression coefficient (β) = 0.19; P < 0.01). Among females, maternal BMI z-score was associated with offspring BMI z-score at birth (β = 0.11; P < 0.05), at age 3 years (β = 0.22; P < 0.01) and at age 13 years (β = 0.51; P < 0.01).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the positive association between maternal weight at the beginning of pregnancy and offspring weight around puberty is stronger than that between maternal weight and offspring weight at birth. Maternal lifestyle may influence offspring weight in adolescence.
Background: A recent meta-analysis compared the relative risks of colorectal cancer between the highest and lowest levels of coffee consumption in the Japanese population. However, this analysis did not define the risks with respect to specific exposure values when considering levels of coffee consumption per day in the study population.
Methods: We conducted a two-stage random-effects dose-response meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer among the Japanese. This was performed by modeling coffee consumption using restricted cubic splines to be able to examine a potential nonlinear relation.
Results: We identified a total of 26 studies from seven articles, which were distributed separately according to sex and colon/rectum cancers. Data from 14 cohort studies showed that the pooled relative risks for colorectal cancers were less than 1.0 in cases with coffee consumption of 1–3 cups/day and 1.0 in cases with consumption of 4 cups/day or more, although these results were not statistically significant. Data from 12 case-control studies showed that the pooled odds ratios for cancer risk were significantly less than 1.0 in cases with coffee consumption of 1–6 cups/day.
Conclusions: Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that moderate coffee consumption may not be associated or may be weakly inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in the Japanese population.