Background: The association between decline in handgrip strength from midlife to late life and dementia is unclear.
Methods: Japanese community-dwellers without dementia aged 60 to 79 years (ie, individuals in late life; mean age, 68 years) were followed for 24 years (1988–2012) (n = 1,055); 835 of them had participated in a health examination in 1973–1974 (mean age, 53 years), and these earlier data were used for the midlife analysis. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, we estimated the risk conferred by a decline in handgrip strength over a 15-year period (1973–74 to 1988) from midlife to late life on the development of total dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) over the late-life follow-up period from 1988 to 2012.
Results: During the follow-up, 368 subjects experienced total dementia. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of total dementia increased significantly with greater decline in handgrip strength (increased or unchanged handgrip strength [≥+0%] 25.1, mildly decreased [−14 to −1%] 28.4, and severely decreased [≤−15%] 38.9 per 1,000 person-years). A greater decline in handgrip strength was significantly associated with higher risk of total dementia after adjusting for potential confounding factors; subjects with severely decreased handgrip strength had 1.51-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.99, P < 0.01) increased risk of total dementia compared to those with increased or unchanged handgrip strength. Similar significant findings were observed for AD, but not for VaD.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a greater decline in handgrip strength from midlife to late life is an important indicator for late-life onset of dementia.
Background: Current trends in serum lipid levels among children are likely to be important predictors of future cardiovascular disease prevalence. However, no studies have examined trends in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in Japanese children.
Methods: We investigated trends in LDL-C levels from 2008 through 2017 and HDL-C levels from 2007 through 2017 in a population of 10- and 13-year-old children in Fukuroi City, Japan. We analyzed 17,838 children, accounting for 93.8% of all fifth and eighth graders in the entire city. Adverse lipid levels were defined as follows: 130 mg/dL or higher for LDL-C, and lower than 40 mg/dL for HDL-C. The Jonckheere-Terpstra and Cochran-Armitage tests were used to evaluate secular trends in mean serum lipid levels and prevalence of dyslipidemia, respectively.
Results: There were no significant trends in BMI during the study period. In children aged 10 years, serum levels of LDL-C and HDL-C showed significant positive associations with calendar year during the study period for both sexes. A significant increase in HDL-C levels was observed in girls aged 13 years. On the other hand, no significant trends were observed in the prevalence of high LDL-C or low HDL-C regardless of sex or age, while the prevalence of high non-HDL-C showed a significant increase in boys.
Conclusions: In the Fukuroi population, serum levels of LDL-C and HDL-C slightly increased in both boys and girls aged 10 years, and HDL-C levels slightly increased in girls aged 13 years, during the past decade.
Background: Distributions of serum pepsinogen (PG) values were assessed in Helicobacter pylori-infected and non-infected junior high school students (aged 12–15 years) in Japan.
Methods: All junior high school students (1,225 in total) in Sasayama city, who were basically healthy, were asked to provide urine and serum samples, which were used to measure urine and serum H. pylori antibodies using ELISA kits and PG values. The subjects, whose urine and serum antibodies were both positive, were considered H. pylori infected.
Results: Of the 187 subjects who provided urine and blood samples, 8 were infected, 4 had discrepant results, 4 had negative serum antibody titers no less than 3.0 U/ml, and 171 were non-infected. In the H. pylori non-infected subjects, the median PG I and PG II values and PG I to PG II ratio (PG I/II) were 40.8 ng/mL, 9.5 ng/mL, and 4.4, respectively, whereas in the infected subjects, these values were 55.4 ng/mL, 17.0 ng/mL, and 3.3, respectively (each P < 0.01). In the non-infected subjects, PG I and PG II were significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.01).
Conclusions: The PG I and PG II values were higher, and the PG I/II was lower in H. pylori infected students than in non-infected students. In H. pylori non-infected students, males showed higher PG I and PG II values than females. The distributions of PG values in junior high school students differed from those in adults.
Background: Few studies have investigated the effects of Okinawan vegetable consumption on the risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease. This study aimed to examine associations of vegetable, fruit, and Okinawan vegetable consumption with risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease in the Japanese population of Okinawa.
Methods: The study design was a prospective cohort study. During 1995–1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered in two study areas to 16,498 participants aged 45–74 years. In 217,467 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2012, a total of 839 stroke cases and 197 coronary heart disease cases were identified.
Results: No statistically significant association between total Okinawan vegetable consumption and risk of stroke and coronary heart disease was obtained: the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest tertile of consumption were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.93–1.29; P for trend = 0.289) in model 2. Total vegetable and fruit and specific Okinawan vegetable consumption were also not statistically significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular outcomes.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that consumption of total vegetable and fruit, total Okinawan vegetables, and specific Okinawan vegetables in Japanese residents of Okinawa was not associated with risk of incident stroke and coronary heart disease.
Background: Lifestyle and life-environment factors have undergone drastic changes in Japan over the last few decades. Further, many molecular epidemiologic studies have reported that genetic, epigenetic, and other biomarker information may be useful in predicting individual disease risk.
Methods: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) was launched in 2011 to identify risk factors for lifestyle-related disease, elucidate factors that extend healthy life expectancy, and contribute toward personalized healthcare based on our more than 20 years’ experience with the JPHC Study. From 2011 through 2016, a baseline survey was conducted at 16 municipalities in seven prefectures across the country. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all registered residents aged 40–74, which mainly asked about lifestyle factors, such as socio-demographic situation, personal medical history, smoking, alcohol and dietary habits. We obtained informed consent from each participant to participate in this long follow-up study of at least 20 years, including consent to the potential use of their residence registry, medical records, medical fee receipts, care insurance etc., and to the provision of biospecimens (blood and urine), including genomic analysis.
Results: As of December 31, 2016, we have established a population-based cohort of 115,385 persons (Response rate 44.1%), among whom 55,278 (47.9% of participants) have provided blood and urine samples. The participation rate was slightly higher among females and in the older age group.
Conclusion: We have established a large-scale population-based cohort for next-generation epidemiological study in Japan.