Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Volume 24 , Issue 4
Showing 1-11 articles out of 11 articles from the selected issue
Original Article
  • Satoko Nezu, Nozomi Okamoto, Masayuki Morikawa, Keigo Saeki, Kenji Oba ...
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 259-266
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 10, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Very few studies have investigated the association between diabetes and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older adults, independent of chronic conditions and geriatric syndromes.
    Methods: We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey and structured interviews with 3946 people aged 65 years or older to obtain medical histories of diabetes, chronic conditions, and geriatric syndromes. Blood tests were performed to measure glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma glucose levels. HRQOL was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36), and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for low HRQOL.
    Results: A total of 3521 participants had not received a physician diagnosis of diabetes. Of these, 2345 participants with an HbA1c less than 5.7% were defined as the referent group. As compared with the referent group, 1029 participants with an HbA1c of at least 5.7% but less than 6.5% showed no significant decrease in QOL on the SF-36 physical, mental, and role component summaries, after adjustment for chronic conditions, geriatric syndromes, and other potential confounders. However, 572 patients who had received a physician diagnosis of diabetes and/or had an HbA1c of 6.5% or higher had a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (1.48; 95% CI, 1.18–1.84) for the low physical component summary. No significant differences in relation to glycemic control, treatment regimen, or diabetes duration were found in any of the 3 component summaries among the 425 participants who were undergoing diabetes treatment.
    Conclusions: Older Japanese adults with diabetes had decreased physical QOL, independent of chronic conditions and geriatric syndromes.
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  • Xilin Yang, Alice PS Kong, Andrea OY Luk, Risa Ozaki, Gary TC Ko, Rona ...
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 267-273
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 19, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Pharmacoepidemiologic analysis can confirm whether drug efficacy in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) translates to effectiveness in real settings. We examined methods used to control for immortal time bias in an analysis of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors as the reference cardioprotective drug.
    Methods: We analyzed data from 3928 patients with type 2 diabetes who were recruited into the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry between 1996 and 2005 and followed up to July 30, 2005. Different Cox models were used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with RAS inhibitors. These HRs were then compared to the HR of 0.92 reported in a recent meta-analysis of RCTs.
    Results: During a median follow-up period of 5.45 years, 7.23% (n = 284) patients developed CVD and 38.7% (n = 1519) were started on RAS inhibitors, with 39.1% of immortal time among the users. In multivariable analysis, time-dependent drug-exposure Cox models and Cox models that moved immortal time from users to nonusers both severely inflated the HR, and time-fixed models that included immortal time deflated the HR. Use of time-fixed Cox models that excluded immortal time resulted in a HR of only 0.89 (95% CI, 0.68–1.17) for CVD associated with RAS inhibitors, which is closer to the values reported in RCTs.
    Conclusions: In pharmacoepidemiologic analysis, time-dependent drug exposure models and models that move immortal time from users to nonusers may introduce substantial bias in investigations of the effects of RAS inhibitors on CVD in type 2 diabetes.
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  • Mikyung Ryu, Bayasgalan Gombojav, Chung Mo Nam, Yunhwan Lee, Kimyoung ...
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 274-280
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 05, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Although binge drinking and high resting heart rate independently affect cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk, the combined effect of these two risk factors and their interaction has rarely been studied. This study examined the association between binge drinking and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and evaluated the potential modifying effect on this association of resting heart rate in Korean men.
    Methods: Men aged 55 years or older in 1985 (n = 2600) were followed for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality for 20.8 years, until 2005. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality by binge drinking and resting heart rate using the Cox proportional hazard model.
    Results: Heavy binge drinkers (≥12 drinks on one occasion) with elevated resting heart rate (≥80 bpm) had a HR of 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–3.45) for death from cardiovascular disease and 1.37 (95% CI, 0.87–2.14) for all-cause mortality compared to the reference group (non-drinking and resting heart rate 61–79 bpm). The HRs of dying from cardiovascular disease increased linearly from 1.36 to 1.52, 1.71, and 2.25 among individuals with resting heart rate greater than or equal to 80 bpm within the four alcohol consumption categories (non-drinking, non-binge, moderate binge, and heavy binge), respectively.
    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, among older Korean men, heavy binge drinkers with an elevated resting heart rate are at high risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.
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  • Young-Hoon Lee, Sun-Seog Kweon, Bo Youl Choi, Mi Kyung Kim, Byung-Yeol ...
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 281-286
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: April 12, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: We investigated the relation of self-reported snoring with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.
    Methods: In total, 7330 community-dwelling subjects in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study were included in the analysis. Common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and plaque were evaluated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Snoring status was evaluated using a structured interview.
    Results: Snorers had a significantly greater average CCA-IMT than non-snorers (0.726 vs 0.713 mm; P < 0.001), after adjusting for age and gender. The odds ratios (OR) for high CCA-IMT (fifth quintile) were significantly higher for snorers than for non-snorers in multivariate-adjusted analysis (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–1.42). However, there was no significant relationship between snoring and carotid plaques.
    Conclusions: Our data suggest that self-reported snoring is significantly associated with increased IMT, but not with the presence of plaques. These findings suggest that early screening and intervention for snoring in the general population are needed to prevent adverse cardiovascular events.
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  • Yuriko Suzuki, Maiko Fukasawa, Akiko Obara, Yoshiharu Kim
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 287-294
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 24, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: To develop an empirically informed support measure for workers, we examined mental health distress and its risk factors among prefectural public servants who were affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and faced a demanding workload in the midterm of the disaster.
    Methods: We conducted a self-administered health survey of all public servants in the Miyagi prefectural government two and seven months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (3743 workers, 70.6% of all employees). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mental distress (defined as K6 score ≥10) in the domain of disaster-work-related stressors, work-related stressors, and disaster-related stressors.
    Results: Among those with better levels of workplace communication, the only factor that increased the risk of mental distress was not taking a non-work day each week (adjusted OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.27–5.14). Among those with poorer levels of workplace communication, in addition to not taking a non-work day each week (adjusted OR 3.93, 95% CI 3.00–5.15), handling residents’ complaints (adjusted OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.00–2.42), having dead or missing family members (adjusted OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.53–5.38), and living in a shelter more than two months after the disaster (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.32–5.95) increased the risk of mental distress.
    Conclusions: All workers should be encouraged to take a non-work day each week. Among workers with poor workplace communication, special attention should be given to those who handle residents’ complaints, have lost a family member(s), and are living in a shelter for a prolonged period of time.
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  • Ji Hyeon Ju, Sang-Heon Yoon, Kwi Young Kang, In Je Kim, Seung-Ki Kwok, ...
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 295-303
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 24, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare autoimmune disease for which a population-based survey on the prevalence of the disease in South Korea has not yet been conducted. Our goal was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of SLE.
    Methods: The International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) code for SLE diagnosis—M32—was tentatively given when patients were suspected to have SLE before 2009. As such, the positive predictive value (PPV) of the M32 code shown in medical bills reflecting true SLE was uncertain. We attempted to estimate the prevalence of SLE in South Korea using national administrative database data from 2004–2006. We approximated the actual number of SLE patients by analyzing a list of SLE-coded patients provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Prevalence was estimated by multiplying the PPV of the M32 diagnostic code by the number of patients receiving the code. The PPV was determined by three methods: direct investigation of the medical records of patients randomly selected from the SLE-coded patients list; assessment of all SLE patients treated at 56 selected hospitals in South Korea; and extrapolation from sub-groups at a single institute to the sub-groups of the national NHI data.
    Results: The estimated number of national SLE cases was between 9000 and 11 000, depending on the method of ascertainment, corresponding to a prevalence of 18.8–21.7 per 100 000 people.
    Conclusions: This is the first report of a nationwide prevalence survey of SLE in South Korea. National databases may serve as a resource for epidemiologic studies of rare autoimmune diseases like SLE.
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  • Jufen Liu, Michikazu Sekine, Takashi Tatsuse, Shimako Hamanishi, Yuko ...
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 304-311
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 24, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Family history can be a useful screening tool in the assessment and management of the risk for noncommunicable disease. However, no data have yet been reported on family history of hypertension and its effect on children’s overweight.
    Methods: A total of 7249 Japanese children enrolled in the Toyama Birth Cohort Study were followed until 2002 (mean age: 12.3 years). Family history of hypertension was ascertained by asking children’s parents whether children’s biological parents or grandparents had doctor-diagnosed hypertension. Child overweight was defined according to international criteria for age- and sex-specific body mass index.
    Results: The prevalence of child overweight at age 12 was 21.7% for males and 15.9% for females. After adjusting for family structure, parental employment status, and lifestyle factors, we found that a maternal family history of hypertension was positively associated with the risk of child overweight at age 12 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.39). The adjusted OR increased from 1.16 (95% CI 0.99–1.35) to 1.42 (95% CI 1.04–1.92) to 4.75 (95% CI 1.35–16.69) as the number of family members with hypertension increased from 1 to 2 to 3, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of overweight between children with a paternal family history of hypertension and those without.
    Conclusions: A maternal family history of hypertension was positively associated with the risk of overweight in children at age 12.
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  • Yoshiko Yoda, Naruhito Otani, Shiro Sakurai, Masayuki Shima
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 312-320
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 24, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with asthma exacerbation. However, little is known about the effects of air pollutant exposure in healthy people. A panel study was conducted to evaluate the acute effects of air pollutants on pulmonary function and airway inflammation in healthy subjects.
    Methods: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and pulmonary function were measured in 21 healthy young women repeatedly for two weeks in the summer in Tokyo, Japan. The concentrations of air pollutants were obtained from the monitoring stations in the neighborhoods where the subjects lived. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations.
    Results: EBC pH decreased significantly with a 10-ppb increase in the 4-day average ozone (O3) concentration and a 10-µg/m3 increase in the 4-day average suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration (−0.07 [95% confidence interval {CI} −0.11 to −0.03] and −0.08 [95% CI −0.12 to −0.03], respectively). Subjects with a history of rhinitis showed marked decreases in EBC pH associated with increases in O3 and SPM. The changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were also significantly associated with a 10-µg/m3 increase in the 3-day average concentration of SPM (−0.09 L [95% CI −0.17 to −0.01]). FeNO increased significantly in relation to the increase in O3 and SPM among only subjects with a history of asthma.
    Conclusions: Over the course of the study, EBC became significantly acidic with increases in O3 and SPM concentrations. Furthermore, higher SPM concentrations were associated with decreased FEV1. Subjects with a history of rhinitis or asthma are considered to be more susceptible to air pollutants.
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  • Ang Zhao, Renjie Chen, Xingya Kuang, Haidong Kan
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 321-326
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 17, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Cardiac arrhythmias are cardiac rhythm disorders that comprise an important public health problem. Few prior studies have examined the association between ambient air pollution and arrhythmias in general populations in mainland China.
    Methods: We performed a time-series analysis to investigate the short-term association between air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and outpatient visits for arrhythmia in Shanghai, China. We applied the over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model to analyze the associations after control for seasonality, day of the week, and weather conditions. We then stratified the analyses by age, gender, and season.
    Results: We identified a total of 56 940 outpatient visits for cardiac arrhythmia. A 10-µg/m3 increase in the present-day concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to increases of 0.56% (95% CI 0.42%, 0.70%), 2.07% (95% CI 1.49%, 2.64%), and 2.90% (95% CI 2.53%, 3.27%), respectively, in outpatient arrhythmia visits. The associations were stronger in older people (aged ≥65 years) and in females. This study provides the first evidence that ambient air pollution is significantly associated with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia in mainland China.
    Conclusions: Our analyses provide evidence that the current air pollution levels have an adverse effect on cardiovascular health and strengthened the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in the city.
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Short Communication
  • Giuseppe Grosso, Stefano Marventano, Fabio Galvano, Andrzej Pajak, Ant ...
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 327-333
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 03, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Intake of caffeinated beverages, such as coffee and tea, has been related to improvements in components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), but studies conducted in the Mediterranean region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not consumption of a variety of beverages containing caffeine was associated with components of MetS in an Italian population.
    Methods: From May 2009 to December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1889 inhabitants living in Sicily, southern Italy. Data regarding demographic characteristics, habitual beverage intake, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were collected, and clinical information was retrieved from the general practitioners’ computer records.
    Results: After adjusting for all covariates, coffee (odds ratio [OR] 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27–0.70) and tea (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34–0.78) were associated with MetS, whereas no association was observed between caffeine intake and MetS. Among other factors, age, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, and adherence to Mediterranean diet were associated with having MetS. Triglycerides were inversely associated with consumption of both espresso coffee and tea. The healthy effects of such beverages were more evident in individuals with unhealthy dietary habits.
    Conclusions: Although no direct association between caffeine intake and MetS or its components was observed, coffee and tea consumption was significantly related to reduced odds of MetS.
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Study Profile
  • Misato Takada, Naoki Kondo, Hideki Hashimoto
    2014 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 334-344
    Published: July 05, 2014
    Released: July 05, 2014
    [Advance publication] Released: May 10, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) aims to clarify the complex associations between social factors and health from an interdisciplinary perspective and to provide a database for use in various health policy evaluations.
    Methods: J-SHINE is an ongoing longitudinal panel study of households of adults aged 25–50 years. The wave 1 survey was carried out in 2010 among adults randomly selected from the resident registry of four urban and suburban municipalities in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. In 2011, surveys for the participants’ spouse/partner and child were additionally conducted. The wave 2 survey was conducted in 2012 for the wave 1 participants and will be followed by the wave 2 survey for spouse/partner and child in 2013.
    Results: Wave 1 sample sizes were 4357 for wave 1 participants (valid response rate: 31.3%; cooperation rate: 51.8%), 1873 for spouse/partner (response rate: 61.9%), and 1520 for child (response rate: 67.7%). Wave 2 captured 69.0% of wave 1 participants. Information gathered covered socio-demographics, household economy, self-reported health conditions and healthcare utilization, stress and psychological values, and developmental history. A subpopulation underwent physiological (n = 2468) and biomarker (n = 1205) measurements.
    Conclusions: Longitudinal survey data, including repeated measures of social factors evaluated based on theories and techniques of various disciplines, like J-SHINE, should contribute toward opening a web of causality for society and health, which may have important policy implications for recent global health promotion strategies such as the World Health Organization’s Social Determinants of Health approach and the second round of Japan’s Healthy Japan 21.
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