Background: Although self-reported questionnaires are widely employed in epidemiologic studies, their validity has not been sufficiently assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a self-reported questionnaire on medication use by comparison with health insurance claims and to identify individual determinants of discordance in the Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study.
Methods: Participants were 2,472 community-dwellers aged 37 to 78 years from the Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study. Information on lifestyle and medications was collected through a questionnaire. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using health insurance claims from November 2014 to March 2016, which were used as a standard. Potential determinants of discordance were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.
Results: The self-reported questionnaire on medication use showed high validity. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93–0.96) and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96–0.98) for antihypertensive medications, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91–0.97) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.98–0.99) for diabetes medications, and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.82–0.87) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.97–0.99) for dyslipidemia medications, respectively. Males without high education and those who currently smoke cigarettes were found to be associated with discordant reporting which affected sensitivity, especially those with medication use for dyslipidemia.
Conclusions: In this population-based cohort study, we found that the self-reported questionnaire on medication use was a valid measure to capture regular medication users. Sensitivity for dyslipidemia medications was lower than those for the other medications. Type of medication, sex, education years, and smoking status influenced discordance, which affected sensitivity in self-reporting.
Background: To investigate all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Taiwanese patients with type 1 diabetes.
Methods: A cohort of 17,203 patients with type 1 diabetes were identified from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance claims in the period of 1998–2014. Person-years were accumulated for each individual from date of type 1 diabetes registration to date of death or the last day of 2014. Age, sex, and calendar year standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated with reference to the general population.
Results: In up to 17 years of follow-up, 4,916 patients died from 182,523 person-years. Diabetes (30.15%), cancer (20.48%), circulatory diseases (13.14%), and renal diseases (11.45%) were the leading underlying causes of death. Mortality rate (26.93 per 1,000 person-years) from type 1 diabetes in Taiwan was high, the cause of death with the highest mortality rate was diabetes (8.12 per 1,000 person-years), followed by cancer (5.52 per 1,000 person-years), and circulatory diseases (3.54 per 1,000 person-years). The all-cause SMR was significantly elevated at 4.16 (95% confidence interval, 4.04–4.28), with a greater all-cause SMR noted in females than in males (4.62 vs 3.79). The cause-specific SMR was highly elevated for diabetes (SMR, 16.45), followed by renal disease (SMR, 14.48), chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis (SMR, 4.91) and infection (SMR, 4.59). All-cause SMRs were also significantly increased for all ages, with the greatest figure noted for 15–24 years (SMR, 8.46).
Conclusions: Type 1 diabetes in both genders and all ages was associated with significantly elevated SMRs for all-cause and mostly for diabetes per se and renal disease.
Background: Hardships associated with the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic can affect mental health, potentially leading to increased risk of suicide. We examined the relationship between the COVID-19 outbreak and suicide attempts in Okayama, Japan using information from emergency dispatches.
Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study. We collected information on emergency dispatches in Okayama City and Kibichuo from March to August in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (n = 47,770 cases). We compared emergency dispatches and their demographic characteristics, especially focusing on suicide attempts, during these 3 years.
Results: The number of emergency dispatches in 2020 decreased compared with the previous 2 years, while the number and proportion of emergency dispatches related to suicide attempts increased. This increase was more pronounced among women and those aged 25–49 years. Among women aged 25–49 years, there was a cumulative total of 43 suicide attempts in 2018 and 2019 and 73 suicide attempts in 2020.
Conclusions: The number and proportion of emergency dispatches related to suicide attempts increased in 2020 compared with the previous 2 years, especially among women and those aged 25–49 years. This increase may be partly explained by hardships, such as economic losses or reduced social ties, during the COVID-19 outbreak.