Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Volume 32, Issue 9
Displaying 1-7 of 7 articles from this issue
Original Article
  • Koryu Sato, Naoki Kondo, Chiyoe Murata, Yugo Shobugawa, Kousuke Saito, ...
    2022 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 401-407
    Published: September 05, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 05, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 06, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: Increasing the coverage of vaccinations recommended by the World Health Organization in the older adult population is an urgent issue, especially in the context of avoiding co-epidemics during the current coronavirus disease 2019 crisis. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the quality of perceived patient–physician communication and whether this variable was associated with increased odds of vaccination.

    Methods: We used cross-sectional data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017. The participants were 22,253 physically and cognitively independent individuals aged 65 or older living in 39 municipalities in Japan. Multilevel logit models were used to estimate the odds of vaccination.

    Results: Among the participants, 40.0% and 58.8% had received pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations as per the recommended schedule, respectively. People with low educational levels were more likely to have a family physician but rate their experience in asking questions lower than those with higher educational levels. Having a family physician and high rating for physicians’ listening attitude were positively associated with increased odds of pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations. High rating for patients’ questioning attitude and shared decision-making, compared to an ambiguous attitude toward medical decision-making, were positively associated with increased odds of pneumococcal vaccination.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that promotion of having a family physician, better patient–physician communication, and shared decision-making may encourage older adults to undergo recommended vaccinations.

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  • Haruhiko Inada, Jun Tomio, Masao Ichikawa, Shinji Nakahara
    2022 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 408-414
    Published: September 05, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 05, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 13, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Background: Modal shifts in transport may reduce overall road injuries. Cyclist junior high school students are at a high risk of road injuries while commuting in Japan, and injuries among junior high school students could be reduced if the cyclists switch to other transport modes.

    Methods: We estimated the change in the incidence of road deaths and serious injuries while commuting in months with heavy snowfall, when cyclists are likely to switch to other transport modes. Using police data on the monthly number of road injuries while commuting among junior high school students in Japan between 2004 and 2013 and corresponding population statistics and snowfall data, we calculated the monthly injury rate (number of deaths and serious injuries divided by population) at the prefecture level. We conducted Poisson regression analysis to estimate the change in the rate in months with a snowfall of ≥100 cm, compared to months without snowfall.

    Results: A total of 3,164 deaths and serious injuries occurred during 2004 to 2013. The injury rate among cyclists was almost zero in months with a snowfall of ≥100 cm. That among cyclists and pedestrians in these months was reduced by 68% (95% confidence interval, 43–82%).

    Conclusion: In months with heavy snowfall, road injuries while commuting were reduced due to the near-elimination of cycling injuries among junior high school students in Japan. Switching from cycling to other transport modes would reduce overall road injuries among this population, and inducing modal shifts can be an important tool for road safety.

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  • Chao Wang, Heng Jiang, Yi Zhu, Yingying Guo, Yong Gan, Qingfeng Tian, ...
    2022 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 415-422
    Published: September 05, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 05, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 20, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: Increasing number of studies have suggested the time to first cigarette after waking (TTFC) have significant positive effect on respiratory diseases. However, few of them focused on the Chinese population. This study aims to estimate the impact of TTFC on the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) in Chinese elderly and explore the association in different sub-populations.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data of demographic characteristics, living environment, smoking-related variables, and CRD were drawn from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2018. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of the TTFC with the prevalence of CRD.

    Results: This study includes 13,208 subjects aged 52 years and older, with a mean age of 85.3 years. Of them, 3,779 participants were ex- or current smokers (44.9% had the TTFC ≤30 minutes, 55.1% >30 minutes) and 1,492 had suffered from CRD. Compared with non-smokers, participants with TTFC ≤30 minutes seemed to have higher prevalence of CRD (OR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.65–2.35) than those with TTFC >30 minutes (OR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.44–2.00), although the difference was statistically insignificant (Pinteraction = 0.12). Compared with TTFC >30 minutes, TTFC ≤30 minutes could drive a higher prevalence of CRD among female participants, those aged 90 years and older, urban residents, and ex-smokers (Pinteraction < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Shorter TTFC relates to higher prevalences of CRD in Chinese older females, those aged 90 years and older, urban residents, and ex-smokers. Delaying TTFC might partially reduce its detrimental impact on respiratory disease in these specific subpopulations.

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  • Chung-Yi Li, Chia-Lun Kuo, Ya-Hui Chang, Chin-Li Lu, Santi Martini, We ...
    2022 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 423-430
    Published: September 05, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 25, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 06, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: We aimed to investigate associations between exposure to various trajectories of severe hypoglycemic events and risk of dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: In 2002–2003, 677,618 patients in Taiwan were newly diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes. Among them, 35,720 (5.3%) experienced severe hypoglycemic events during the 3-year baseline period following diagnosis. All patients were followed from the first day after baseline period to the date of dementia diagnosis, death, or the end of 2011. A group-based trajectory model was used to classify individuals with severe hypoglycemic events during the baseline period. Cox proportional hazard models with the competing risk method were used to relate dementia risk to various severe hypoglycemia trajectories.

    Results: After a median follow-up 6.70 and 6.10 years for patients with and without severe hypoglycemia at baseline, respectively, 1,952 (5.5%) individuals with severe hypoglycemia and 23,492 (3.7%) without developed dementia during follow-up, for incidence rates of 109.80 and 61.88 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. Four groups of severe hypoglycemia trajectory were identified with a proportion of 18.06%, 33.19%, 43.25%, and 5.50%, respectively, for Groups 1 to 4. Groups 3 (early manifestation but with later decrease) and 4 (early and sustained manifestation) were associated with a significantly increased risk of dementia diagnosis, with a covariate-adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.31) and 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.54), respectively.

    Conclusion: Our analysis highlighted that early manifestation of severe hypoglycemic events may contribute more than does late manifestation to the risk of dementia among individuals newly diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes.

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  • Chihiro Nishiura, Yosuke Inoue, Ikuko Kashino, Akiko Nanri, Motoki End ...
    2022 Volume 32 Issue 9 Pages 431-437
    Published: September 05, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 05, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 13, 2021
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Background: While it is essential to understand how long is sufficient for return-to-work when designing paid sick-leave systems, little attempt has been done to collect cause-specific information on when and how many of sickness absentees returned to work, became unemployed, or passed away.

    Methods: We studied the first sick-leave episode of ≥30 consecutive days in those ≤55 years of age during 2012–2013 among employees of 11 Japanese private companies (n = 1,209), which were followed until 2017. Overall and disease-specific cumulative incidences of return-to-work, resignations, and deaths were estimated using competing risk analysis.

    Results: During the 3.5-year period (follow-up rate: 99.9%), 1,014 returned to work, 167 became unemployed, and 27 died. Overall, return-to-work occurred within 1 year in 74.9% of all absentees and in 89.3% of those who successfully returned to work. Resignation occurred within 1 year in 8.7% of all absentees and in 62.9% of all subjects who resigned. According to ICD-10 chapters, the cumulative incidence of return-to-work ranged from 82.1% for mental disorders (F00–F99) to 95.3% for circulatory diseases (I00–I99). The cumulative incidence of return-to-work due to mental disorders ranged from 66.7% in schizophrenia (F20) to 95.8% in bipolar affective disorders (F31). Death was rarely observed except for cases of neoplasms (C00–D48), of which the cumulative incidence of death reached 14.2% by 1.5 years.

    Conclusion: Return-to-work and resignations occurred commonly within 1 year of sick leave among long-term sickness absentees in the Japanese private companies. Our findings may assist occupational physicians and employers in developing effective social protection schemes.

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