Background: While much effort has focused on quantifying disease burden in occupational health, no study has simultaneously assessed disease burden in terms of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to propose a new comprehensive method of quantifying the disease burden in the workplace.
Methods: The data were obtained from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health (J-ECOH) Study, a large-scale prospective study of approximately 80,000 workers. We defined disease burden in the workplace as the number of working years lost among the working population during a 6-year period (April 2012 to March 2018). We calculated the disease burden according to consequences of health problems (ie, mortality, sickness absence [SA], and ill-health retirement) and disease category. We also calculated the age-group- (20–39 and 40–59 years old) and sex-specific disease burden.
Results: The largest contributors to disease burden in the workplace were mental and behavioural disorders (47.0 person-years lost per 10,000 person-years of working years; ie, per myriad [proportion]), followed by neoplasms (10.8 per myriad) and diseases of the circulatory system (7.1 per myriad). While mental and behavioural disorders made a greater contribution to SA and ill-health retirement compared to mortality, the latter two disorders were the largest contributors to the disease burden in the workplace due to mortality. The number of working years lost was greater among younger versus older female participants, whereas the opposite trend was observed in males.
Conclusions: Our approach is in contrast to those in previous studies that focused exclusively on mortality or morbidity.
Background: Breaches of ethics undermine the practice of medicine. In Japan, two major scandals involving clinical research and drug marketing occurred after the publication of clinical trials. To study the effects of those scandals, we evaluated changes in the use of first-generation angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) after publication of relevant clinical trials and also after the subsequent scandals.
Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental design of an interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) on nationwide monthly drug-market data covering 12 years (2005 to 2017) in Japan. The main outcome was the use of first-generation ARBs (valsartan, candesartan, and losartan). The two exposures were the publication of ARB-related clinical-trial results (October 2006) and subsequent ARB-related scandals involving research and marketing (February 2013). A generalized estimating equation model was fitted for ITSA with a log link, Poisson distribution, robust variance estimators, and seasonality adjustment.
Results: The publication of clinical trials was associated with 12% increase in the use of first-generation ARBs in Japan, and the subsequent ARB-related scandals was associated with 19% decrease. The decrease in the use of first-generation ARBs after the scandals was greater than the increase in their use after the publication of clinical-trial results. The net effect of the two exposures was a 9% decrease in the use of first-generation ARBs.
Conclusions: The scandals were associated with decrease in the use of first-generation ARBs, and that decrease was greater than the increase associated with the publication of “successful” clinical trials, making the net effect not zero but negative.
Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined the association between skipping breakfast and overweight/obesity in pre-elementary school children. Furthermore, this association may differ between boys and girls. The main objective of this study was to assess whether skipping breakfast in early childhood was associated with later incidence of overweight/obesity, with stratification by gender, using data on children aged 2.5 to 13 years old in The Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st century.
Methods: We examined the associations between skipping breakfast at 2.5 years old and overweight/obesity at 2.5 (n = 34,649), 4.5 (n = 35,472), 7 (n = 31,266), 10 (n = 31,211), and 13 (n = 28,772) years old. To estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of overweight/obesity by each age (2.5, 4.5, 7, 10, and 13 years), a multivariate logistic regression was used adjusting for time-invariant and time-varying covariates.
Results: At the age of 2.5 years, 11.0% of boys and 12.2% of girls were skipping breakfast. In fully adjusted models, skipping breakfast at 2.5 years old was not significantly associated with overweight/obesity at 2.5 and 4.5 years old, but was significantly associated with overweight/obesity at 7 and 10 years old, in both sexes. Skipping breakfast at 2.5 years old was significantly associated with overweight/obesity at 13 years old in boys (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17–1.62), but not in girls (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 0.98–1.49).
Conclusions: Skipping breakfast in early childhood increased overweight/obesity in later childhood, but there may be gender differences in the association.
Background: Unlike many North American and European countries, Japan has observed a continuous increase in cancer incidence over the last few decades. We examined the most recent trends in population-based cancer incidence and mortality in Japan.
Methods: National cancer mortality data between 1958 and 2018 were obtained from published vital statistics. Cancer incidence data between 1985 and 2015 were obtained from high-quality population-based cancer registries maintained by three prefectures (Yamagata, Fukui, and Nagasaki). Trends in age-standardized rates (ASR) were examined using Joinpoint regression analysis.
Results: For males, all-cancer incidence increased between 1985 and 1996 (annual percent change [APC] +1.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7–1.5%), increased again in 2000–2010 (+1.3%; 95% CI, 0.9–1.8%), and then decreased until 2015 (−1.4%; 95% CI, −2.5 to −0.3%). For females, all-cancer incidence increased until 2010 (+0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6–0.9% in 1985–2004 and +2.4%; 95% CI, 1.3–3.4% in 2004–2010), and stabilized thereafter until 2015. The post-2000 increase was mainly attributable to prostate in males and breast in females, which slowed or levelled during the first decade of the 2000s. After a sustained increase, all-cancer mortality for males decreased in 1996–2013 (−1.6%; 95% CI, −1.6 to −1.5%) and accelerated thereafter until 2018 (−2.5%; 95% CI, −2.9 to −2.0%). All-cancer mortality for females decreased intermittently throughout the observation period, with the most recent APC of −1.0% (95% CI, −1.1 to −0.9%) in 2003–2018. The recent decreases in mortality in both sexes, and in incidence in males, were mainly attributable to stomach, liver, and male lung cancers.
Conclusion: The ASR of all-cancer incidence began decreasing significantly in males and levelled off in females in 2010.