Background: To examine the relationship of working history from early adulthood through old age with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL).
Methods: Analyzed participants were 5,857 community-dwelling older Japanese people aged ≥65 years. Using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, IADL decline was defined as individuals who had no IADL dependence at baseline but were deemed as dependent in IADL at follow-up. Work history was based on working status at baseline, total working years, and information concerning the longest held job, including occupation, employment pattern, and workplace size (number of employees). We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses and estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for IADL decline with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by gender.
Results: At the 33-month follow-up, 428 men (16.6%) and 275 women (8.4%) developed IADL decline. After covariate adjustments, men with unstable employment reported significantly increased IADL decline (OR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19–1.95) compared to men with stable employment, and men who worked in small workplaces with 1–49 employees had an increased risk for IADL decline (OR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.21–1.93) compared to men in large-sized workplaces with ≥50 employees. After mutual adjustment for all working history items, only the association between small workplaces and IADL decline remained significant in men (OR 1.37; 95% CI, 1.03–1.84). Among women, none of the working history items were associated with IADL decline.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that not only promoting older people’s workforce participation, but also providing workers employed at small workplaces with sufficient occupational health services, may be effective in helping men retain IADL in later life.
Background: The lack of comprehensive food composition databases for sugar contents in Japanese foods has led to the lack of nutritional epidemiologic studies on sugar intake in Japanese population. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association of free sugar intake estimated using a newly developed food composition database with the characteristics and lifestyles of Japanese children aged 3–6 years.
Methods: The food composition database contained information on sugars in 2,222 commonly consumed Japanese foods. Using this database, we estimated the sugar (total, added, and free sugars) intakes derived from a 3-day weighed dietary record of 166 boys and 166 girls aged 3–6 years living in 24 prefectures in Japan.
Results: The mean free sugar intake was 26.8 g/d (standard deviation [SD], 12.3 g/d), while the mean value for energy intake was 7.8% (SD, 3.2%). The prevalence of excessive free sugar intake (≥10% of energy intake) was 21.7%. Among the characteristics and lifestyles examined, screen time was most strongly associated with the prevalence of excessive free sugar intake: multivariate adjusted odds ratios for screen time <0.5, ≥0.5 to <1, and ≥1 h/d were 1.0 (reference), 3.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–13.98), and 4.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.16–16.35), respectively. Additionally, younger age, shorter sleep, and mothers with office work and service and sales jobs (compared with those with professional and managerial jobs) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of excessive free sugar intake.
Conclusions: This study showed the sugar intake of Japanese children aged 3–6 years is positively associated with screen time.
Background: Participation in leisure activities (LA) is essential for successful aging. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of types of LA with self-rated health (SRH) by gender and work status.
Methods: The target population was all residents aged ≥65 years in a municipality (n = 16,010; response rate, 62.5%). We analyzed 4,044 men and 4,617 women without disabilities. LA were categorized into 14 types. SRH was assessed through the SF-8. Excellent or very good SRH was defined as positive SRH. Covariates included age, marital status, education, subjective economic status, body mass index, chronic diseases, alcohol, smoking, walking time, depression, and cognitive functioning. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for positive SRH, with non-participation as the reference.
Results: After adjustment for covariates and mutual adjustment for other LA, participation in the following types of LA was positively associated with positive SRH: sports activities among working men (OR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.07–2.00), non-working men (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04–1.69), and non-working women (OR 1.74; 95% CI, 1.41–2.15); cooking among non-working men (OR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.18–2.33) and non-working women (OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03–1.60); musical activities among working men (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01–2.05) and non-working women (OR 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29–1.95); and technology usage only among working men (OR 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.96). In contrast, TV watching was negatively associated with positive SRH among non-working women (OR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56–0.85).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that encouraging older adults to participate in types of LA appropriate to their gender and work status might be a key to positive SRH.
Background: In research using accelerometers to measure physical activity, the number of accelerometers that can be utilized in a study and the study duration are both constrained. It means that increasing the number of accelerometer wearing days for all subjects leads to a decrease in the total number of participants the study can recruit. We used simulations to find the optimal combination of the number of wearing days and number of participant given a fixed number of accelerometer days.
Methods: Two scenarios were studied here, including estimation of population physical activity level and the association between physical activity level and a health outcome. Another similar simulation was conducted by bootstrapping the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2006 accelerometer data (n = 4,069).
Results: The simulation results of the first scenario showed that the error was minimized when the number of wearing days was 1 to 2. Simulation results of the second scenario showed that the optimal number of wearing days increased with the total number of accelerometer days and decreased with intra-class correlation (ICC).
Conclusion: We developed a tool for researchers to determine the optimal combination of the number of the accelerometer wearing days and the total number of participants and showed that 1 to 2 accelerometer wearing days is optimal for estimation of population physical activity level.
Background: Japan became the first country where heat-not-burn tobacco products were sold. Therefore, there was no information for actual status on the actual use status or the harms of heat-not-burn tobacco products. The objectives of the study profile are to generate data that can be freely available to external researchers, and to create collaborative research projects in the future.
Methods: The Japan “Society and New Tobacco” Internet Survey (JASTIS) is a longitudinal internet cohort study which investigates perception, attitude, and use of heat-not-burn tobacco, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and conventional tobacco products in Japan. The survey also includes demographic, health-related, and socioeconomic factors. Participants were randomly selected and invited from internet panelists. The baseline survey was closed when the target number of respondents who had answered the questionnaire was met.
Results: The study includes three cohorts (1–3) from the 2015 baseline survey and a cohort (4) from the 2017 baseline survey: cohorts 1 and 4 were recruited based on sex and age: men and women aged 15–69 years (n = 8,240 for cohort 1 and n = 5,897 for cohort 4); cohorts 2 and 3 were created using status-based recruiting: e-cigarette and/or heat-not-burn tobacco ever users (n = 2,188; cohort 2) and combustible cigarette smokers without e-cigarette/heat-not-burn tobacco experience (n = 724; cohort 3). The completion rates were 8.5% to 9.9%. All subjects were followed and assessed annually. Response rates for the follow-up survey were 65.5% in 2016, 55.3% in 2017, and 50.9% in 2018. Because Internet-based responders are not a representative sample of the general population of Japan, we conducted adjustment to account for “being an internet survey respondent” and reported tobacco product use in Japan. A recent JASTIS study reported that prevalence of IQOS current-use among Japanese adults had rapidly increased from 0.3% in 2015 to 3.6% in 2017.
Conclusion: The JASTIS study provides the first estimates for heat-not-burn tobacco use in the world and e-cigarette use in Japan. For information on collaboration, please contact the corresponding author.