Background: Sedentary behaviors are prevalent among children and can have a detrimental effect on their health. Little is known about the influence of parental time on children’s sedentary behavior. This study examined the association between parental working hours and children’s sedentary time.
Methods: Cross-sectional data were drawn from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) in 2010 and 2011. Participants were 886 children aged 7–18 years and their parents. The primary outcome was self-reported sedentary time after school that comprised screen time and non-screen time. The main explanatory variable was parental working hours. We used multiple regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors.
Results: Children’s mean sedentary time was 222 (standard deviation [SD], 123) min/day; 144 (SD, 108) min/day screen time and 78 (SD, 65) min/day non-screen time. Children whose mothers worked ≥20 hours/week had 28 (95% CI, 9 to 48) min/day longer sedentary time than children of homemakers (240 min/day vs 214 min/day). The longer maternal working hours, the longer sedentary time (P for trend <0.01). In contrast, children whose fathers worked ≥48 hours/week had 82 (95% CI, −156 to −7) min/day shorter sedentary time than children of non-working fathers (179 min/day vs 264 min/day). When limited to children whose fathers worked, there was no statistically significant association between children’s sedentary time and paternal working hours.
Conclusions: Children with mothers who work long hours or fathers not working tend to sit more. Supplementing the shortages in resources for childcare may be necessary among those families.
Background: The long-term effects of occupational injury (OI) on psychiatric diseases are unclear. This study assessed and compared the effects of OI, no injury (control), and non-OI (NOI) on the development of psychiatric diseases.
Methods: We used Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database to investigate the incidence of psychiatric disorders in OI, NOI, and control groups. The subjects were aged 20–50 years, actively employed in 2000, and did not have history of injury or psychiatric disorders. All subjects were followed from 2000 and were classified into OI, NOI, and control groups according to occurrence of target injury later on. Individuals in each group were matched by age, sex, insurance premium before the index date, and year of the index date. Psychiatric disease-free days were compared among the groups using survival analysis and Cox regression.
Results: We included a total of 12,528 patients for final analysis, with 4,176 in each group. Compared with the control group, the OI group had an increased occurrence of trauma and stress-related disorder, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and alcohol and other substance dependence. These increases were similar to those in the NOI group. Elevated cumulative incidence rate of any psychiatric disorders was observed among those with OI or NOI up to 10 years after injury.
Conclusion: We confirmed that OI and NOI induced psychiatric disorders. These findings highlight the need for workers’ compensation mechanisms to consider long-term psychological care among injured workers.
Background: Mumps deafness causes serious problems, and incidence data are needed to identify its disease burden. However, such data are limited, and the reported incidence is highly variable. Nationwide studies in Japan with a large age range are lacking.
Methods: This was a retrospective observational investigation of the 2005–2017 mumps burden using employment-based health insurance claims data. Data were analyzed for 5,190,326 people aged 0–64 years to estimate the incidence of mumps deafness.
Results: Of 68,112 patients with mumps (36,423 males; 31,689 females), 102 (48 males; 54 females) developed mumps deafness—an incidence of 15.0 per 10,000 patients (1 in 668 patients). Fifty-four (52.9%) patients had mumps deafness in childhood (0–15 years), and 48 (47.1%) had mumps deafness in adolescence and adulthood (16–64 years); most cases occurred in childhood, the peak period for mumps onset. The incidence of mumps deafness per 10,000 patients was 73.6 in adolescence and adulthood, 8.4 times higher than the incidence of 8.8 in childhood (P < 0.001). In childhood, the incidence of mumps deafness was 7.2 times higher among 6–15-year-olds (13.8; 95% CI, 10.2–18.2) than among 0–5-year-olds (1.9; 95% CI, 0.6–4.5), and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). No sex difference was observed.
Conclusions: The incidence of mumps deafness per 10,000 patients aged 0–64 years was 15.0 (1 in 668 patients). A secondary risk of deafness following mumps virus infection was identified not only for children, but also for adolescents and adults.
Background: The number of new noncommercial clinical studies conducted in Japan declined within the first year of the implementation of the Clinical Trials Act (CTA) on April 1, 2018. This study aimed to examine the impact of the CTA’s enforcement on the number of new noncommercial clinical studies registered in the Japanese Clinical Trial Registry.
Methods: An interrupted time-series design was used in the analysis, which was conducted from April 2015 to March 2019. We collected data for studies registered in the Clinical Trial Registry, managed by the University Hospital Medical Information Network.
Results: In total, 35,811 studies were registered; of these, 16,455 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The difference in the trend of monthly number of new studies after CTA enforcement decreased significantly by 15.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], −18.7 to −11.3), and the level decreased by 40.8 (95% CI, −68.2 to −13.3) studies from the pre-enforcement to the post-enforcement period. Multigroup analyses indicated that the act exerted a significant effect on the trend of new clinical studies, particularly those with smaller sample sizes, interventional study designs, and nonprofit funding sponsors.
Conclusions: The number of Japanese noncommercial clinical studies declined significantly following implementation of the CTA. It is necessary to establish a system to promote clinical studies in Japan while ensuring transparency and safety.
Background: Since June 2013, Japan has suspended proactive recommendation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination due to self-reported diverse symptoms, including pain and motor dysfunction, as possible serious adverse events following immunization. Although these symptoms may be seen in adolescents without HPV vaccination, their frequency, taking into account disease severity, has not been examined.
Methods: A two-stage, descriptive, nationwide epidemiological survey was conducted in 2016, with a 6-month target period from July 1 to December 31, 2015, to estimate the prevalence and incidence of diverse symptoms among Japanese adolescents without HPV vaccination. Participants were 11,037 medical departments in hospitals selected nationwide by stratified random sampling. Eligible patients had to satisfy four criteria: (1) aged 12–18 years upon visiting hospital; (2) having at least one of four symptoms/disorders (pain or sensory dysfunction, motor dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, or cognitive impairment); (3) symptoms/disorders persisting for at least 3 months; and (4) both criteria (2) and (3) influence attendance at school or work. We then extracted data of patients with diverse symptoms similar to those after HPV vaccination while considering opinions of doctors in charge.
Results: Estimated 6-month period prevalence of diverse symptoms among girls aged 12–18 years without HPV vaccination was 20.2 per 100,000. Annual incidence was estimated to be 7.3 per 100,000.
Conclusion: Adolescent Japanese girls without HPV vaccination also visited hospitals with diverse symptoms similar to those following HPV vaccination. Our findings predict the medical demands for coincident diverse symptoms, which are temporally associated with but not caused by HPV vaccination of Japanese adolescents.
Background: To investigate the causal link between early-life exposures and long-term health consequences, we established the Tianjin Birth Cohort (TJBC), a large-scale prospective cohort in northern China.
Methods: TJBC aims to enroll 10,000 families with follow-ups from pregnancy until children’s six year-old. Pregnant women and their spouses were recruited through a three-tier antenatal healthcare system at early pregnancy, with follow-ups at mid-pregnancy, late pregnancy, delivery, 42 days after delivery, 6 months after delivery, and each year until 6 years old. Antenatal/neonatal examination, biological samples and questionnaires were collected.
Results: From August 2017 to January 2019, a total of 3,924 pregnant women have already been enrolled, and 1,697 women have given birth. We observed the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus as 18.1%, anemia as 20.4%, and thyroid hypofunction as 2.0%. In singleton live births, 5.6% were preterm birth (PTB), 3.7% were low birth weight, and 7.3% were macrosomia. Based on current data, we also identified maternal/paternal factors which increased the risk of PTB, including paternal age (OR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01–1.14 for each year increase), vaginal bleeding during pregnancy (OR 2.82; 95% CI, 1.54–5.17) and maternal early-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01–1.15 for each kg/m2 increase).
Conclusion: TJBC has the strength of collecting comprehensive maternal, paternal, and childhood information. With a diverse range of biological samples, we are also engaging with emerging new technologies for multi-omics research. The study would provide new insight into the causal link between macro/micro-environmental exposures of early life and short/long-term health consequences.