Background: There have been few community-based epidemiological studies in which the prevalence of exogenous hormone use, including the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), has been accurately assessed in Japan.
Methods: We have been conducting repeated surveys of participants in the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (JNHS), as a nationwide prospective cohort study, since 2001. We determined the prevalence of exogenous hormone use at baseline and during a 10-year follow-up period. A total of 15,019 female nurses participated in the JNHS follow-up cohort. We determined the prevalence of OC use in 14,839 women <60 years of age at baseline and the prevalence of HRT use in 7,915 women, excluding premenopausal women, at the last time they answered a questionnaire. The duration of HRT use was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results: Six percent of the participants used OCs. The proportion of HRT users who stopped HRT before the baseline survey, the proportion of women using HRT during the follow-up period, and the proportion of all of the participants who had used HRT were 3.2%, 10.6%, and 13.8%, respectively. The median duration of HRT use was 2 years.
Conclusions: The lifetime prevalences of exogenous hormone use during this prospective study conducted in Japanese nurses were 6.0% for OCs and 13.8% for HRT. The information obtained in this study will be useful for clarification of the association between exogenous estrogen exposure and estrogen-related diseases as future research.
Background: Several studies have described an association between hemoglobin concentration and stroke; however, the influence of hemoglobin on stroke incidence has not been fully revealed. Our objective was to elucidate the association between hemoglobin concentration and stroke incidence in Japanese community residents.
Methods: In the present study, we collected the data of 12,490 subjects who were enrolled between April 1992 and July 1995 in the Jichi Medical School (JMS) Cohort Study. We excluded the subjects with a history of stroke. Hemoglobin concentrations were grouped in quartiles, and quartile 2 (Q2) was used as the reference category. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to examine hazard ratios (HRs) and the stroke incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results: During 10.8 years of follow-up, 409 participants (212 men and 197 women) experienced a new stroke, including 97 intracerebral hemorrhages, 259 cerebral infarctions, and 52 subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH). In sex-specific hemoglobin quartiles, the multivariate-adjusted HR was statistically significantly higher in Q1 than in Q2, and a relationship similar to a J shape was observed between all strokes (HR in Q2 vs Q1, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02–1.83; Q3, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.87–1.64; and Q4, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.84–1.60). Furthermore, the analysis of stroke subtypes showed a statistically significantly higher multivariate-adjusted HR in Q1 than in Q2 for SAH (HR 2.61; 95% CI, 1.08–6.27).
Conclusions: A low hemoglobin concentration was associated with an increased risk of stroke, which was strongly influenced by the incidence of SAH.
Background: The objective of this study is to describe the legislation regulating the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in various places in European countries.
Methods: A survey among experts from all countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region was conducted in 2018. We collected and described data on legislation regulating e-cigarette use indoors and outdoors in public and private places, the level of difficulties in adopting the legislation, and the public support and compliance. Factors associated with the legislation adoption were identified with Poisson and linear regression analyses.
Results: Out of 48 countries, 58.3% had legislation on e-cigarette use at the national level. Education facilities were the most regulated place (58.3% of countries), while private areas (eg, homes, cars) were the least regulated ones (39.6%). A third of countries regulated e-cigarette use indoors. Difficulty and support in adopting the national legislation and its compliance were all at a moderate level. Countries’ smoking prevalence and income levels were linked to legislation adoption.
Conclusions: Although most WHO European Region countries had introduced e-cigarette use legislation at the national level, only a few of the legislation protect bystanders in indoor settings.
Background: Heated tobacco products (HTP) are new forms of tobacco consumption with limited information available on their use among the general population. Our objective was to analyze the prevalence and associations of use of HTP across 11 countries in Europe.
Methods: Within the TackSHS Project, in 2017–2018 we conducted a cross-sectional study with information on HTP use in the following countries: Bulgaria, England, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania and Spain. In each country, face-to-face interviews were performed on a representative sample of around 1,000 subjects aged ≥15 years, for a total of 10,839 subjects.
Results: Overall, 27.8% of study participants were aware of HTPs, 1.8% were ever HTP users (ranging from 0.6% in Spain to 8.3% in Greece), and 0.1% were current users. Men were more frequently HTP ever users than women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.95). Ever HTP use was inversely related to age (P for trend <0.001) and more frequent in ex-smokers (compared with never smokers, aOR 4.32; 95% CI, 2.69–6.95) and current smokers (aOR 8.35; 95% CI, 5.67–12.28), and in electronic cigarette past users (compared with never users, aOR 5.48; 95% CI, 3.46–8.68) and current users (aOR 5.92; 95% CI, 3.73–9.40).
Conclusions: In 2017–2018, HTP use was still limited in Europe among the general population; however, the dual use of these products, their high use among younger generations, and the interest of non-smokers in these products are worrying and indicate the need for close monitoring in terms of prevalence and the characteristics of users.
Background: Sleeping pills are widely used for sleep disorders and insomnia. This population-based study aimed to evaluate the association between the use of sleeping pills and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic components in an apparently healthy Japanese cohort.
Methods: We examined baseline cross-sectional data from the JMS-II Cohort Study. The criteria for MetS and its components were based on The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Sleep habits including the sleep duration of the subjects and the frequency of sleeping pill use were obtained using The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. For different sleep durations, the association between sleeping pill use and MetS was assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models to quantify this association.
Results: Our study included 6,153 individuals (mean age, 63.8 [standard deviation 11.2] years), and 3,348 (54.4%) among them were women. The association between sleep duration and MetS was an inverted J-shaped curve among sleeping pill users and a J-shaped curve among non-users. After adjustment for various confounders, less than 6 h of sleep among sleeping pill users was associated with increased rates of MetS (<6 h, OR 3.08; 95% CI, 1.29–7.34]). The frequency of sleeping pill use in individuals with short sleep duration showed a positive association with the prevalence of MetS and its components.
Conclusions: Sleeping pill users with a short sleep duration had a 3-fold higher chance of having MetS than non-users with a short sleep duration.