Journal of Epidemiology
Online ISSN : 1349-9092
Print ISSN : 0917-5040
ISSN-L : 0917-5040
Volume 31 , Issue 10
Showing 1-5 articles out of 5 articles from the selected issue
Original Article
  • Takaaki Ikeda, Noriko Cable, Masashige Saito, Shihoko Koyama, Taishi T ...
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 10 Pages 523-529
    Published: October 05, 2021
    Released: October 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: August 08, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: Existing evidence suggest that those who are socially isolated are at risk for taking up or continuing smoking. This study investigated country-based differences in social isolation and smoking status.

    Methods: We performed a repeated cross-sectional study using two waves of data from two ongoing aging studies: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Participants from both studies aged ≥65 years were included. We applied a multilevel Poisson regression model to examine the association between social isolation and smoking status and adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. We used the social isolation index which comprises the following domains: marital status; frequency of contact with friends, family, and children; and participation in social activities. Interaction terms between each country and social isolation were also entered into the mode.

    Results: After exclusion of never smokers, we analyzed 75,905 participants (7,092 for ELSA and 68,813 for JAGES, respectively). Taking ex-smokers as the reference, social isolation was significantly associated with current smoking; the prevalence ratios (PRs) were 1.06 (95% credible interval [CrI], 1.05–1.08) for men and 1.08 (95% CrI, 1.04–1.11) for women. Taking Japan as a reference, the interaction term between country and social isolation was significant for both sexes, with increased PRs of 1.32 (95% CrI, 1.14–1.50) for men and 1.30 (95% CrI, 1.11–1.49) for women in England.

    Conclusions: Older people who were less socially isolated were more likely to quit smoking in England than in Japan, possibly explained by the strict tobacco control policies in England.

    Download PDF (466K)
  • Shiho Amagasa, Shigeru Inoue, Shigekazu Ukawa, Sachiko Sasaki, Koshi N ...
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 10 Pages 530-536
    Published: October 05, 2021
    Released: October 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: August 08, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Background: Previous research has established that women accumulate less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than men. To date, however, little is known about the gender differences in device-based activity patterns of sedentary behavior (SB) and light-intensity physical activity (LPA). We aimed to compare time spent in SB and different intensities of physical activity taking into account of co-dependence of time use domains.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Suttu town, Hokkaido, Japan. Data were analyzed from 634 Japanese adults (278 men, aged 19–92 years) who provided valid accelerometer (HJA-750C) data. Gender differences in activity behavior patterns were tested using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on isometric log-ratio transformations of time use, adjusting for age. We also developed bootstrap percentile confidence intervals (CI) to support the interpretation of which behavior differed between genders.

    Results: Overall, participants had percent time spent in SB, LPA, MVPA during wearing time (mean, 14.8 hours) corresponding to 53.9%, 41.7%, and 4.4% of wearing time, respectively. Activity behavior patterns differed significantly between genders after controlling for time spent in all activities. Women spent relatively 13.3% (95% CI, 9.9–15.9%) less time in SB and 19.8% (95% CI, 14.9–24.6%) more time in LPA compared to men. The difference of time spent in MVPA was not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: In contrast with previous studies, our findings suggest that Japanese women are more physically active than men when all intensities of activities are considered. Given the health benefits of LPA, evaluating only MVPA may disproportionately underestimate the level of physical activity of women.

    Download PDF (949K)
  • Masaaki Yamada, Michikazu Sekine, Takashi Tatsuse, Yukiko Asaka
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 10 Pages 537-544
    Published: October 05, 2021
    Released: October 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: August 08, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS

    Background: Little is known about pathological Internet use (PIU) and online risky behaviors among elementary school children. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with PIU and online risky behaviors.

    Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Toyama, Japan in 2018. The study included 13,413 children in the 4th–6th grades (mean, 10.5 years old) from 110 elementary schools (61.1% of elementary schools in Toyama). We assessed PIU using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) and risky behaviors. Poisson regression analysis was conducted.

    Results: Totally, 13,092 children returned questionnaires (response rate 97.6%). The prevalence of PIU was 4.2% and that of each risky behavior was as follows: 21.6% for spending money online, 6.6% for uploading personal movies, 5.2% for interpersonal issues, and 2.4% for having met strangers. PIU was significantly associated with boys (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.52), skipping breakfast (PR 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14–1.79), Internet time (for 2∼3 h, PR 3.49; 95% CI, 2.63–4.65; for 3∼4 h, PR 4.45; 95% CI, 3.27–6.06; and for ≥4 h, PR 8.25; 95% CI, 6.45–10.55), physical inactivity (PR 2.63; 95% CI, 2.00–3.47), late bedtime (PR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.45–2.39 for ≥11 p.m.), no rules at home (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01–1.46), no child-parent interaction (PR 1.37; 95% CI, 1.06–1.77), and no close friends in real life (PR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.30–2.19).

    Conclusions: PIU and risky behaviors were not rare among the elementary school children. Besides unhealthy lifestyles, social and family environments were associated with PIU. Having child-parent interaction and helping children develop close friendships in real life are effective deterrents to PIU.

    Download PDF (441K)
  • Akiho Sugita, Ling Ling, Taishi Tsuji, Katsunori Kondo, Ichiro Kawachi
    2021 Volume 31 Issue 10 Pages 545-553
    Published: October 05, 2021
    Released: October 05, 2021
    [Advance publication] Released: September 19, 2020
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: Active engagement in intellectually enriching activities reportedly lowers the risk of cognitive decline; however, few studies have examined this association, including engagement in traditional cultural activities. This study aimed to elucidate the types of cultural engagement associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment.

    Methods: We examined the association between cultural engagement and cognitive impairment using Cox proportional hazards models in a cohort of 44,985 participants (20,772 males and 24,213 females) aged 65 years or older of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study from 2010 to 2016. Intellectual activities (eg, reading books, magazines, and/or newspapers), creative activities (eg, crafts and painting), and traditional cultural activities (eg, poetry composition [haiku], calligraphy, and tea ceremony/flower arrangement) were included among cultural engagement activities.

    Results: Over a follow-up period of 6 years, incident cognitive disability was observed in 4,198 respondents (9.3%). After adjusting for potential confounders, such as depression and social support, intellectual activities were protectively associated with the risk of cognitive impairment (hazard ratio [HR] for those who read and stated that reading was their hobby, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66–0.85 and HR for those who read but did not consider reading a hobby, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65–0.80). Engagement in creative activities was also significantly correlated with lower risk of cognitive impairment (crafts: HR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62–0.81 and painting: HR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66–0.96). The association between traditional cultural activities and the risk of cognitive impairment was not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: Engagement in intellectual and creative activities may be associated with reduced risk of dementia.

    Download PDF (1269K)
Letter to the Editor
feedback
Top