In order to survey the present utilization of biofeedback in Japan, we gave a questionnaire to all members of Japanese Biofeedback Society, and could collect 97 available replies. The questionnaire composed of the following domains: profession of membership, instruments, basic research study, clinical application, and future prospect of biofeedback study. The professions of members were psychologists(42%), physicians (38%), engineers(11%), and physical educationers (4%). In spite of much satisfaction with functional efficiency of biofeedback instruments, there were still requirements for low price and debelopment of multifeedback systems. About 80% of researchers did basic studies, and about 50% of them applied biofeedback methods to their patients. EMG feedback was used frequently, and was evaluated as an effective method at hospitals. On the other hand, some people who answered the questionnaire did not agree to clinical use of brain wave feedback. Most researchers answered that biofeedback methods were not popular in Japan. They indicated that the biofeedback methods were not succeeding in the wide use because of lack of the standard procedure and the adequate systems of insurance and education. However many researchers expected that biofeedback methods would spread over the various fields.
In this study, alpha brainwaves were divided into the slow alpha wave ( 8 - 10Hz) and the fast alpha wave (11 - 13Hz). Experiment I was designed to examine the difference in control processes between slow and fast alpha using the integrated alpha feedback training technique. The results showed that although the slow alpha group (n=21) succeeded in enhancing the slow alpha wave, the fast alpha group (n=21) did not succeed in enhancing the fast alpha wave. In subjective reports, most subjects of the slow alpha group reported a state of relaxation, while the subjects of the fast alpha group reported a state of concentration. In Experiment II, 17 subjects were given concurrent slow alpha wave enhancement training and fast alpha wave suppression training, using a differential enhancement method. The results were that the slow alpha wave increased while the fast alpha wave decreased. Thus, the effectiveness of the differential enhancement method on alpha biofeedback training was verified. However, additional studies will be required to clarify the interpretation of subjective reporting.
We made two experiments to examine the mutual relation between vibratory sensations and the effects of alpha enhancement in feedback training. First we examined the effects of auditory feedback in vibratory disturbing circumstances. Secondary we examined the effects of vibratory feedback compaired with auditory feedback. 8 subjects were devided into 2 groups, A and B. In group A, Alpha auditory feedback training, first in the vibratory chair and subsequently in the normal chair, was employed. And in group B, the procedure was reversed. The results indicate that alpha rhythm can be enhanced by auditory feedback training even in vibratory disturbing circumstances. In addition, the results suggest that alpha enhancement in feedback training in some disturbing cicumstances not always need the previous training in no-disturbing cicumstances. The findings of the second experiments indicate that the effects of vibratoty feedback training is not so different from that of auditory feedback training. In the vibratory feedback training, at first appreciable suppression of alpha activities was observed, but as training session went on, enhancement was achieved satisfactory.