Well regulated life is essential for keeping health, and inappropriate life habit is much influential to health defects. Intelligent support systems are required for establishing healthy life managements based on the observed daily life states of a focused family. It could make a person regulate his/her life style and living environments autonomously considering health conditions of himself/herself and his/her family. This paper introduces systems technology that sequentially obtains information on states of human body existence and living environments through a couple of simple sensors of various kinds and estimates states of human life behavior by fusion processing of the obtained information. Then as the prospects establishing intelligent support systems for autonomous healthy life managements further required technology is described. One important technology concerns to acquisition of life pattern styles and dynamic behavior models through the accumulated data on states of human life behavior. Another important technology concerns to detecting occurrence of irregular human behavior, diagnosing the causes and giving adequate advices to the focused person or the family.
The purpose of this study is to clarify what kind of bio-information must be fed back, when Parkinson's disease and essential tremor patients use biofeedback training for their tremor control. We applied the AR (autoregressive) model to the forearm tremor in order to have a clearer picture of their features from the viewpoint that information related to the difference between pathological tremors and physiological tremors of healthy people may be fed back. Subjects are 18 Parkinson's disease patients, 20 essential tremor patients, and 13 healthy old people. We used the 7-th degree AR model which minimizes FPE (final prediction error'). The following resuls were obtained : (1) the characteristic equation obtained from the pathological tremor observed in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor patients contains mostly negative real root as a factor (on the other hand, the one obtained from the physiological tremor of healthy people contains mostly positive real root); (2) within the roots of characteristic equation obtained from the pathological tremor of essential tremor patients, the absolute value of characteristic root which shows fundamental frequency is mostly closer to 1 (on the other hand, within the roots of characteristic equation obtained from the physiological tremor of healthy people, the one is mostly far from 1). We will train patients with the tremor diseases, while those differences obtained here are presented to them as biofeedback information. We can use the result obtained in this study as it is for the diagnosis support of the Parkinson's disease and the essential tremor.
The purpose of this study was to investigate psychophysiological responses to slow movement tempo exercise. The task was a continuous forearm rotation movement, in which 12 female subjects were asked to perform 6 times at a rate of less than 5 rpm for a duration of 90 seconds. EEG, ECG, and respiration were recorded, and a UWIST Mood-Adjective Check List was administered. Before and after performing the task, the internal speed of each subject was measured using the same forearm rotation movement. Rotation speed had a negative correlation to the coefficient of variation as well as the amplitude of the β-band (13-30Hz) in the central area (Cz) . The laterality coefficient of α2-band (10-13Hz) in frontal area changed between trials. R-R interval and respiration frequency did not change compared to the resting condition. After performing the task, the internal speed became slower and the R-R interval was significantly increased. These results suggest that slow movement tempo exercises have a cognitive component and may modify behavioral motion, such as internal speed.
For the first step toward understanding physiological processes underlying learning in biofeedback, we measured neuromagnetic fields in the cognitive process of sensory inputs using a whole - cortex type magnetoencephalography system. A combination of dichotic bimodal (visual and auditory) inputs was applied to subjects who were instructed to respond to a specified combination of the bimodal input by mentally counting it. The evoked magnetic fields elicited by the target detection were then analyzed by the source modelling method. The equivalent current dipoles detected were located on the magnetic resonance image of subjects' brain. The results showed that (1) at an early stage (about 90-130 ms) their locations were restricted in visual and auditory areas, suggesting that at this stage input information would be processed in a modality-specific manner, (2) in about 130-150 and 220-230 ms they were estimated mainly in subcortical areas including the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, and (3) otherwise, they were diversified into many cortical areas including the parietal, the temporal and the frontal association areas, as well as subcortical areas including the limbic system and the basal ganglia, suggesting activities in the ganglia-thalamocortical loop and the prefrontal-hippocampal system. The neuromagnetic fields also showed P300m- like waveforms in their late component (after about 350 ms) in relation to target discrimination, which would correspond to P3b in electroencephalography. By this time discrimination of the input signal would be made. The results show that the cortical processes in discrimination of the sensory inputs would be made incorporated with the relevant subcortical activities, suggesting a possibility of relationship between cognition and learning processes in biofeedback at the subcortical level.
The treatment of hypertension (HT) is presumably designed to prevent hypertension-induced organ disturbances and improve the patients's quality of life (QOL). Though blood pressure (BP) in the medical environment falls under the category of HT, the group of normal BP in the non-medical environment, including families, is broadly known as white-coat hypertension (WHT) in conceptual terms. The 6th report (1997) of the Joint National Committee takes up the relaxation or biofeedback (BF) therapy as a non-pharmaceutical therapy for HT. This time, we used the BF therapy for WHT without any organ disturbances on the assumption that psychogenic factors have something to do with it. By performing more than seven years of observation, we checked and saw if the BF therapy would be of effect in the prevention of organ disturbances and the enhancement of QOL. Of 72 cases to which the BF therapy was provided more than 20 times, 37 placed under more than seven years of observation were divide into two groups, depending on whether they had organ disturbances, and both groups compared. Insofar as four or less years of observation were concerned, the BF therapy turned out to be effective for both groups with significant drops in the values of clinical BP and blood catecholamine (CA) and with improvements in symptoms. In the group with organ disturbances in the seventh year, however, there were rises in clinical BP, in anxiety inventory and in the values of CA. For cases with many symptoms, a high anxiety inventory and the base line of the α-wave at upwards of 50%, the use of the BF therapy should be positively put into consideration, judging from the long-term prognosis of WHT. For an assessment of effects, it was suggested that there was the need to take account of not just a drop in clinical BP but also the correct prediction rate of the α-wave's appearance rate (controllability) and its correct prediction rate (discriminablity). When it comes to observation of the clinical course, it was demonstrated that there was also the need to take into consideration trends in clinical BP, blood CA, the anxiety inventory, controllability and discriminability.
EMG-Biofeedback training (EMG-BFT) was applied to a college student who suffered from sequellae of cheek bone fracture due to bicycle accident for 2 years. He was diagnosed abducens palsy (VI) and facial palsy (VII) with symptoms of traumatic divergent strabisums, secondary spasmodic torticollis, loss of wrinkle on L-forehead, imbalance of nasal groove, slight degree of speech dysfunction and walk disturbance. He could not walk straight. Five sessions of EMG-BFT in one month showed that he could move left eyeball outward and as a consequence he became free from strabismus and secondary torticollis, and could wrinkle his forehead al-most even with right-left balance. However, his wrinkle was shallower in the left after 6 months when he finished EMG-BFT. With regard to therapeutic mechanism why EMG-BFT of facial nerve (VII) worked on obducens palsy, Tasaki & Saito's text book revealed that both nuclei was located adjacent in the pons and VII nerve goes round VI nucleus. According to textbook (SOBOTA/BECHER eds.), VII nerve fiber reach to VI nucleus directly. So biofeedback information of both forehead and ocular orbital muscle (VII) might contribute abducens muscle (VI) through adjacent effect. In the kingdom of ophthalmology, EOG(electrooculography) and PEOG (Photoelectrooculography) is undertrial for biofeedback training of strabismus too. Clinical application of self-control technique is expected in near future.
Most of EEG biofeedback studies so far were contents about the change of the subjective rating which accompanies alpha wave appearance. Although a number of clinical biofeedback applications have been reported, no systematic parametric study has appeared. For the next step of the study the effects of EEG biofeedback training upon behavioral measures have to be clarified in a systematic way. The purpose of this study was to test whether alpha wave increase training and beta wave increase training give a change in time estimation. Before and after the biofeedback training, 20 participants were asked to produce three different time intervals of 15,30 and 60 seconds. The findings were that the alpha biofeedback training tended to increase the time. estimation, although the beta biofeedback training tended to decrease the time. Taking those findings together it was suggested that the alpha biofeedback would relax the central nervous system which leads to increased time estimation, in contrast to the beta biofeedback has the reverse effect.