(Purpose) Since 2003, screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been conducted to detect prostate cancer. We investigated the results between 2003 and 2007. (Patients and methods) Screening with PSA alone was performed for males aged over 50 years who desired prostate cancer screening. We used a PSA cutoff value of 4.00ng per milliliter. (Results) In 2003, there were 18,161 males aged over 50 years in Ikeda City. 3,738, 3,905, 4,129, 4,410, and 4,515 of the males underwent PSA screening in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. The rate of elevated PSA levels was 7.9%-9.8% (median 9.1%). 161, 81, 70, 75 and 60 of the males visited us for secondary screening, and prostate biopsy was performed in 130 (80.7%), 57 (70.4%), 45 (64.3%), 38 (50.7%), and 42 (70.0%). Prostate cancer was detected in 91, 33, 29, 20 and 25 males, respectively. These values corresponded to 2.43%, 0.85%, 0.70%, 0.45% and 0.55% of the males who underwent primary screening. The incidence of prostate cancer was 0.96% during the 5 years. Clinical stage was B in 137 (69.2%), C in 52 (26.3%), D in 7 (3.5%), and unknown in 2. Surgery was performed in 87 (43.9%), endocrine therapy in 61 (30.8%), irradiation in 37 (18.7%), and follow up without treatment in 7 (3.5%). Treatment for 6 (3.0%) is unknown because they desired treatment at another hospital. (Conclusions) 198 males were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2003 and 2007. The clinical stage B was present in 137 (69.2%), and the early treatment was achieved. This may lead to a future decrease in the mortality rate.
(Purpose) To investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic treatment with the injectable gel of dextranomer beads in stabilized non-animal sodium hyaluronate (NASHATM/Dx gel) administered submucosally close to the proximity of ureteral orifice, we performed the multi-center open study of Japanese patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We herein report the results of the study. (Subjects and methods) Patients aged ≥1 year with grade II-IV VUR underwent endoscopic injection with NASHA/Dx gel. Post-treatment assessment was done by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) at 3 and 12 months. Patients with VUR grade II-IV at 3 months underwent re-treatment, with VCUG assessment 3 and 12 months after re-treatment. Positive response to treatment was defined as reflux grade 0 or I. (Results) The initial treatment was conducted to 116 ureters in 73 patients. The per-protocol efficacy population included 97 ureters in 71 patients. On a per-ureter basis, the positive response rate at 12 months after the last endoscopic treatment was 69.1%, compared with 62.0% on a per-patient basis. Improvement in reflux grade was shown to be statistically significant at both 3 months post initial treatment and 12 months post last treatment. Positive response rate decreased with increasing baseline reflux grade. There were only two mild adverse events (AEs) and one moderate laboratory fluctuation which were potentially relating to NASHA/Dx gel. (Conclusions) This study has shown that endoscopic injection of NASHA/Dx gel is effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with VUR. First-line use of this treatment for VUR could potentially be considered for Japan also.
The patient was a 30-year-old man who had undergone living-donor kidney transplantation for renal failure caused by IgA nephropathy at age 29. On post-transplantation day 83, he visited our department with a chief complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. CT performed on post-transplantation day 95 revealed a tumor (size, 4cm) in the right native kidney that had not been observed at the time of transplantation. CT performed on post-transplantation day 153 showed that the tumor had enlarged to 6cm, while retrograde pyelogram performed on post-transplantation day 171 was negative for renal pelvic tumor. On post-transplantation day 193, radical right nephrectomy was performed. The tumor had directly invaded the diaphragm and the lower surface of the liver, and was histopathologically diagnosed as rhabdoid tumor of the kidney. As the pathological tissue was extremely malignant, hepatic posterior segmentectomy, right adrenalectomy, and lymph node dissection were further performed for metastases on post-transplantation day 200. On the 23rd day after radical right nephrectomy (post-transplantation day 216), the patient developed dyspnea. Chest CT showed pleural effusion, hemothorax in right lung and metastases in both lungs. The patient's general status gradually worsened thereafter, and he died on the 53rd day after radical right nephrectomy (post-transplantation day 246). Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney is a rare renal tumor that affects children, and only four adult cases have been reported to date. We report our experience with this rare case.
A 51 year-old man admitted to our hospital for macroscopic hematuria and right abdominal mass. CT demonstrated a large hypervascular mass and tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava and right atrium. We diagnosed right renal cancer (stage III), and he underwent radical nephrectomy and resection of tumor thrombus with extracorporeal circulation. Operative time was 9 hours. Time for extracorporeal circulation was 119 minutes, and it took 60 minutes for intraoperative balloon occlusion of descending aorta in order to arrest hemorrhage. Pathological diagnosis was clear cell carcinoma of the kidney (pT3c, N0, M0). Four days after surgery, paraplegia was evident, and a diagnosis of spinal cord infarction was made based on neurologic examination and MRI findings. In cases with such a surgery requiring extracorporeal circulation, preoperative meeting with cardiologists and anesthetists is indispensable in order to fully understand the possible complications. Especially, to keep a careful watch and prepare for spinal cord ischemia is mandatory.
We report a case of retroperitoneal fibrosis due to Schistosoma Japonicum in patient with urothelial carcinoma. Retroperitoneal fibrosis was observed in a-83-year-old man during examinations for postrenal renal failure. The symptoms were improved by percutaneous nephrostomy and pulse therapy using corticosteroids, however, urothelial carcinoma was detected during follow-up examinations. The biopsy of retroperitoneal tissue was performed during the surgery for urothelial carcinoma. The histopathological examination revealed scattered calcified eggs of Schistosoma Japonicum in retroperitoneal fibrosis tissue. Therefore, in this case, we assumed Schistosoma Japonicum was the cause of retroperitoneal fibrosis. In our knowledge, there is no report about retroperitoneal fibrosis due to Schistosoma Japonicum. We hypothesize the pathway that the eggs penetrate into retroperitoneal space is extravasation from intestinal wall and peritoneal cavity, although the detail of this mechanism is not obvious. It is well known about the relationship between Schistosomasis and malignant tumors. However, it seemed no evidence regarding the relationship between Schistosoma Japonicum and urothelial carcinoma, since there is no report about it and the eggs were not found in specimen of urothelial carcinoma.
A 64-year-old man visited our hospital presenting with macroscopic hematuria. Right hydronephrosis and hypertrophy of the prostate were shown by DIP and MRI respectively. A small papillary tumor at the prostatic urethra was found by cystourethroscopy. Then, we performed transurethral resection of the tumor and trans-perineal needle biopsy of the prostate, and diagnosed him as primary urothelial carcinoma of the prostate. Following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (MVAC), the patient was treated with radical cystoprostatectomy. The histopathological examination showed urothelial carcinoma with concomitant sarcomatous transformation. Six months after the surgery, he had a recurrence of the tumor in the pelvic cavity. He was treated with the second-line chemotherapy using paclitaxel and gemcitabin combined with the radiation therapy, resulting in the disappearance of the tumor. No evidence of the recurrence has been observed for 3 years.