(Objectives) This study is to elucidate the advantage of laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) over open radical cystectomy (ORC) in an early perioperative period. (Materials and methods) We investigated the perioperative outcome of the consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy at Yokohama City University Hospital. The data of 11patients who underwent LRC from February 2008 to May 2009 was compared with that of 11 patients who had ORC from October 2006 to April 2009. (Results) The operative time was significantly longer in LRC (p=0.00794); the mean operative time for LRC and ORC was 521 and 428 minutes respectively. The blood loss was significantly smaller in LRC (p=0.0014); the mean volume of bleeding by LRC and ORC was 801 and 2,156ml respectively. The date of the diet resumption after the operation comes significantly earlier in the case of LRC (p=0.0142); the mean number of days to the resumption after LRC and ORC were 4.6 and 9.3 respectively. The top C-reactive protein (CRP) figure was significantly lower in LRC (p=0.0124); the mean of peak CRP after LRC and ORC was 10.8 and 16.6mg/dl respectively. As for postoperative complications, there were no significant differences between two groups (p=0.375); the rate of complications occurred after LRC and ORC was 27 and 45% respectively. Also no significant differences were observed as to the number of dissected lymph nodes among these two groups (p=0.262); the mean number in LRC and ORC was 10.9 and 13.7 respectively. (Conclusions) From our investigations it is appropriate to conclude that in an early perioperative period LRC has advantages over ORC: a smaller amount of blooding, an earlier date of the diet resumption, and a lower peak of CRP. LRC is less invasive than ORC, though the former takes longer time for an operation than the latter.
We report the first case of scleroderma-like skin sclerosis induced by docetaxel chemotherapy for prostate cancer in Japan. A 67-year-old man underwent radical prostatectomy for cT3aN0M0 prostate cancer in 2003. Thereafter PSA recurrence developed and antiandrogen deprivation therapy was used. However, we diagnosed this case as hormone refractory prostate cancer and began docetaxel chemotherapy in October 2008. There were no nonhematological adverse events through two courses of treatment. He presented to dermatology due to pain and swelling of both upper arms on the second day of the third course. However, when treated with a cooling method, swelling of the upper arms became worse and CPK rose to 1,921IU/l on the eighth day. We administered a steroid ointment and an antibiotic due to suspicion of thrombophlebitis. Nevertheless, CPK rose to 2,791IU/l and a skin biopsy was done. In consequence, scleroderma-like skin sclerosis induced by docetaxel chemotherapy was diagnosed. Swelling appeared in both lower limbs and the pain got worse on the 17th day. Therefore docetaxel chemotherapy was discontinued and prednisolone was increased to 30mg/day, in addition to beginning codeine use for the pain. Thereafter, the painful sclerosis was ameliorated.
28-year-old female received dialysis treatment due to chronic renal failure caused by polycystic kidney disease. Later, she underwent a laparoscopic splenectomy and ABO incompatible living kidney transplantation successfully following bilateral renal contraction therapy with renal transcatheter arterial embolization (renal TAE). A unilateral or bilateral native nephrectomy of a massively enlarged kidney performed at the time of renal transplantation is a common treatment in polycystic kidney patients scheduled for transplantation. On the other hand, when treated with renal TAE, such patients can avoid a laparotomy, which provides several advantages when undergoing peritoneal dialysis in the future or a laparoscopic splenectomy prior to ABO incompatible kidney transplantation. Furthermore, we consider that bilateral renal TAE is necessary for polycystic kidney patients prior to renal transplantation for a variety of reasons, including problems associated with contrast nephropathy if renal TAE for left kidney is remained after renal transplantation.
We report a rare case of primary amelanotic malignant melanoma of the female urethra. A 58-year-old female with complaint of nodule on the external urethral meatus was referred to our hospital. Pathological diagnosis of the biopsy specimen from the nodule was malignant melanoma. Computed tomography of the chest and abdomen as well as bone scan showed no evidence of metastasis. Sentinel biopsy from the inguinal lymph nodes revealed no metastasis. Thereafter, the patient underwent radical urethrectomy, whose limits of resection were the bulbocavernosal muscles bilaterally, the arch of the pubic symphysis anteriorly, the anterior vaginal wall posteriorly, and the urethra up to the level of the bladder neck superiorly. The histopathological diagnosis was amelanotic malignant melanoma of the urethra. The patient had received six cycles of DAV-Feron (dacarbazine, nimustine, vincristine, and interferon-β) in an adjuvant setting, and there is no sign of reccurence 25 months after operation.
A 28-year-old male presented with a small painless lump in his left hemiscrotum. A physical examination revealed a non-tender mass that was palpable on the tail of left epididymis, and the testis and spermatic cord were normal. Ultrasonography showed an isoechoic round shaped tumor, 16mm in diameter. An exploration of the scrotum was performed, based on a preoperative diagnosis of a left epididymal tumor. The tumor was located below the tail of epididymis, and had a whitish capsule, which looked similar to tunica albuginea testis. A frozen section revealed testicular tissue without any malignant change, and therefore polyorchidism was diagnosed. The accessory testis was resected because there was no connection with the epididymis and vas deferens. Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly with 24 cases reported in the Japanese literature. The indications for the resection of an accessory testis are controversial. Patients with intrascrotal polyorchidism might be recommended to undergo a resection of the accessory testes if there are signs of dysplasia during an intraoperative biopsy. Patients must be followed up with regular clinical and ultrasonic examinations when accessory testes are preserved. However, extrascrotal supernumerary testes should be managed by an orchiectomy because of the increased risk of malignancy.