(Purpose) Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, which was developed for treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures. However, its efficacy in patients after kidney transplantation remains unclear. Treatment cases of denosumab for osteoporosis after kidney transplantation in our department were examined.
(Methods) We retrospectively reviewed four patients with osteoporosis after kidney transplantation who were treated with denosmab in our hospital. Osteoporosis was diagnosed using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
(Results) After 12 months, bone mineral density of total lumbar spine and femoral neck increased by 5.5% and 3.0%, respectively. Biomarkers of bone turnover (Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and Intact-procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide) markedly decreased in the first one month and remained at the low level thereafter. Obvious adverse event was not recognized and graft function was stable in all cases.
(Conclusion) Denosumab was considered to be safe and effective in patients who underwent kidney transplantation.
(Objective) Although laparoscopic excision of urachal remnants has been applied widely, the standard surgical method has yet to be established. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate perioperative outcome and surgical techniques, including the trocar placement at our institution.
(Subjects and methods) A total of 20 patients with urachal remnant were treated using laparoscopic surgery between October 2002 and August 2016. 3 trocars were inserted in the peritoneal cavity. Camera trocar was placed at right side of umbilicus and two working trocars were placed at the upper side of umbilicus and right lower quandrant. A 5 mm, 30° angled lens camera was used during operation.
(Results) The mean age was 27 years old. There were 16 males and 4 females. The classifications of urachal remnants were urachal sinus (n=18) and urachal diverticulum (n=2). Umbilical excision was performed in 18 case and partial cystectomy were required in 4 cases. 4 trocars were inserted in only one case due to severe adhesion in the peritoneal cavity. Laparoscopic excision was successfully completed in all cases. The mean operative time was 220 minutes and the mean blood loss was minimal. The complications occurred in 5 cases including small intestinal injury (n=2), peritonitis (n=1), wound infection (n=1), intestinal obstruction (n=1) and acute renal failure (n=1) (intestinal obstruction and acute renal failure were occurred in the same case).
(Conclusion) Although there are problems such as shortening the operative time and reducing complications, our unique port placement enables good surgical view and easy suturing during partial cystectomy.
(Background) Multiple renal angiomyolipoma (AML) may develop concurrently with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). In recent years, an increase in subjects undergoing chest computed tomography examinations, including medical examinations, has been accompanied by an increase in LAM cases that are diagnosed while still asymptomatic. Surgical treatment may also be performed for renal AML to prevent bleeding. We clarified the clinical features of AML that is complicated by LAM, and discussed the significance of screening for LAM.
(Methods) Between January 1, 2006 and April 30, 2014 two groups, comprising 7 patients with LAM (LAM-AML group) and another 26 patients without LAM (sporadic AML group), were compared with regard to findings for renal AML such as imaging examinations, pathological features, and treatment course. Screening for LAM was chest CT scanning.
(Results) In the LAM-AML group, there were younger and more female cases and tumors tended to be multiple, large and bilateral. 85.7% of cases underwent surgery. On the other hand, in the sporadic group 73.1% of cases were followed up without treatment. There was no preoperative lung screening except the one TSC case and all 5 LAM cases were diagnosed postoperatively. One LAM patient was symptomatic and eventually required lung transplantation, while all other LAM cases were handled by monitoring the course, without treatment.
(Conclusion) Many cases of asymptomatic LAM are untreated. However, the poor prognosis, risk of a need for general anesthesia, and potential for renal sparing by selection of pharmacotherapy must be taken into account. In that light-especially in the case of young women-patients with multiple renal AML should undergo preoperative screening for LAM.
(Purpose) Targeted therapy has been standard therapeutic approach for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). General fatigue is frequently observed in patients who receive targeted therapies for advanced RCC. General fatigue makes it difficult to continue a standard schedule of treatment in many cases. In this preliminary report, we explored the effect of Koujin powder (red ginseng powder) with Ninjin-youeito for general fatigue induced by targeted therapies for advanced RCC.
(Material and method) The patients who complained of general fatigue during the treatment of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) as targeted therapies for advanced RCC were included in this retrospective analysis. Thirty patients with advanced RCC were enrolled from January 2016 to December 2016 at Chiba University Hospital. Twelve patients were given 3 g of Koujin powder with 9 g of Ninjin-youeito orally for two to four weeks (ginseng combination group). Eighteen patients who were not orally administered were compared as a control group (ginseng non-combination group). General fatigue was assessed with the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS), which divides quality of fatigue into three subgroups by using a "physical subscale", an "affective subscale", and a "cognitive subscale". We compared CFS scores at baseline and 2-8 weeks after administration.
(Results) There was no statistical difference in the clinical variables between the two groups. The total CFS score was significantly decreased after treatment in the ginseng combination group (average score, 21.8 points at baseline vs 18.5 points after treatment; p=0.041). On subgroup analyses, the physical subscale score was significantly reduced after treatment in the ginseng combination group (average score, 9.7 points at baseline vs 7 points after treatment; p=0.0042). In the ginseng non-combination group, the total CFS score was significantly increased during the course (average score, 16.2 points at baseline vs 20.6 points during the course; p=0.047). On subgroup analyses, the physical subscale score was significantly increased during the course (average score, 4.4 points at baseline vs 7.3 points during the course; p=0.0042).
(Conclusions) Koujin powder with Ninjin-youeito can be a therapeutic approach for general fatigue induced by targeted therapies. The precise management for general fatigue can keep patients on therapy, consequently provides a survival benefit.
A 78-year-old woman presented with macroscopic hematuria. We diagnosed giant hydronephrosis with a left ureteral stone and multiple renal pelvic carcinoma cT3N0M0 tumors.
Open nephroureterectomy proceeded via a peritoneal approach, and 8,600 mL of urine were collected from the renal pelvis. The pelvic carcinoma was histologically confirmed as a rare giant cell variant with high malignant potential. The same variant was found in the upper ureter where a 15-mm stone had lodged. We considered that this was due to rapid progression of the renal pelvic giant cell carcinoma and hydronephrosis during the month before surgery.
Multiple lung and bone metastases occurred after three courses of gemcitabine/cisplatin combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant therapy. Therefore, radiotherapy for bone metastasis and gemcitabine/paclitaxel combination chemotherapy were performed concurrently.
Since we experienced a case that S-1+Cisplatin (CDDP) therapy was effective for bladder primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of pT4N0M0, we report here the time course of its pathophysiology and the treatment of that patient, and discuss the justification of the chemotherapy for the T4 case with the comparison of the previous cases. The present case is a 66 years old man. Because he was aware of the urinary frequency and the sense of incongruity at abdominal region for approximately three months, he visited our hospital for the consultation of his symptoms in July, 2015. The anterior wall showed a torose lesion by cystoscopy from the left sidewall, and we found the histopathology signet ring cell adenocarcinoma after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. As a result of thorough investigation of thoracic abdominal CT, whole body PET-CT and endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, we diagnosed it as bladder primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with cT3N0M0. Consequently, we tried total cystectomy in August, 2015, however both bladder and pelvic wall were adhered strongly each other; we gave up the total cystectomy and changed the strategy to the urinary diversion by bilateral ureterocutaneous fistula. A biopsy of the adhesion site of the right pelvic wall showed the invasion of the signet ring cell adenocarcinoma, which enabled us to diagnose as pT4bN0M0. Therefore, we performed the chemotherapy with the S-1+CDDP for 12 courses, 16 months from August, 2015 after the surgery. After the initiation of the chemotherapy, the tumor marker was tended to decrease for eight months, but turned to increase thereafter. Because there was no evidence for neither distant nor lymph node metastases of tumor revealed by CT and the MRI, we diagnosed it as Stable Disease at least by CT and MRI examinations for 16 months. The major side-effects were not found during the strengthened chemotherapy without the recurrence until January, 2017. Since this case is very rare, we report the time courses and treatment strategy of a patient with bladder primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma.
A 56-year-old woman had complained of two year's consecutive left-side abdominal pain. Retroperitoneal tumor was diagnosed and the patient was referred to our institute in December 2014. Laboratory data including endocrinological activity and serological markers were within the normal ranges. Imaging studies showed that the solid tumor measuring 5 cm in diameter was uncovered in the retroperitoneum, between the abdominal aorta and left kidney. The patient underwent surgical removal of the tumor with the left kidney because the mass was highly adhesive to the left ovarian vessels and left renal vein. Histological examination showed proliferating spindle cells in the tumor, and immunoreactivity for desmin and alfa-smooth muscle actin in tumor cells confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma originated in left ovarian vein with left renal vein invasion. The patient has been free of disease 21 months after the surgery. Ovarian vein leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare and we have found 18 cases in literature. Furthermore, only three cases of leiomyosarcoma arising from the ovarian vein with the renal vein invasion were reported including our case.
A 70 year-old man underwent contrast CT, which revealed his swollen left inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes. The lymph nodes reduced in size without any treatments in a follow-up examination. In 2013, the lymph nodes enlarged again, and FDG-PET/CT showed high value at the prostate and multiple lymph nodes. The levels of serum PSA was high (PSA=682 ng/ml), therefore he underwent a prostate biopsy in his previous hospital and was diagnosed prostate cancer with metastasis of lymph nodes (cT2cN1M1a). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was administered; however, the levels of serum PSA didn't reduce and lymph nodes enlarged further. He was referred to our hospital for further evaluation and treatment. The levels of serum total testosterone before ADT administration at his previous hospital was less than 0.05 ng/ml, which meaned that he had been hypogonadism. Brain MRI revealed a pituitary tumor, and he was diagnosed secondary hypogonadism due to the pituitary tumor. This was thought a rare case of a prostate cancer with secondary hypogonadism which had become castration resistant at the time of diagnosis.
A 71-year-old male was referred to our hospital with right scrotal swelling. The ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6.5 cm mass adjacent to the right testicle. Under the preoperative diagnosis of benign intrascrotal lipoma, local tumor excision through scrotal skin incision was performed. The histopathological examination revealed atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma. With the evidence of malignancy, two-stage surgery was mandatory. Thus, radical orchiectomy with high cord ligation and wide excision of surrounding soft tissue structures through inguinal skin incision was performed. However, there were no tumor cells remaining in the resected samples. Neither adjuvant radiation therapy nor chemotherapy has been performed since contrast computed tomography showed no evidence of metastasis. He is free of disease at 1 year postoperatively.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is rare but sometimes develops in association with malignant neoplasm. We report two cases of CVT that occurred during cisplatin-based chemotherapy for testicular cancer. A 46-year-old man with stage IIA non-seminomatous germ cell tumour was treated with conventional doses of etoposide and cisplatin (EP). On day 11 of the third treatment course, he developed a systemic seizure. Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could not detect the cause. Enhanced chest-pelvic CT revealed pelvic thrombosis. Administration of phenytoin for epilepsy of unknown cause and heparin for thrombosis was started. He had completed 4 courses of EP therapy without seizure recurrence. After re-evaluating the brain CT images retrospectively, we found high density of superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and strongly suspected CVT. Another patient was a 47-year-old man with stage IIIB seminomatous germ cell tumour treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) therapy. On day 11 of the second treatment course, he developed a systemic seizure. Brain CT revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage localised in the right parietal lobe. CT venography revealed a filling defect in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). MR venography revealed a SSS stenosis. We diagnosed the cause of the seizure as CVT and started administration of anticoagulant therapy. After the thrombus had diminished, chemotherapy was restarted and another 2 courses of BEP therapy was completed.
IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) is a comprehensive term for renal lesions associated with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), which is a recently recognized clinical entity characterized by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4+ plasma cells with fibrosis affecting several organs. A 70-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an abnormality at the left renal hilum detected by CT scan. Urinalysis was negative, urine cytology was rated as Class IIIa, and contrast-enhanced CT revealed left renal pelvic wall thickening without an irregular lumen and swelling of bilateral obturator lymph nodes. Ureterorenoscopy and biopsy were performed, and results showed no evidence of malignancy. Then, laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Plasma cells were the predominant infiltrating inflammatory cells; immunostaining showed marked infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells with >10 IgG4+ plasma cells per high-power field, and the IgG4+/IgG+ cell ratio was over 40%. Serum IgG4 was extremely high. We made a final diagnosis of possible IgG4-related disease according to Comprehensive diagnostic Criteria for IgG4-related disease 2011. We report a long-term (40-month) follow-up case of IgG4-related kidney disease without therapy because there are no symptoms.
The reported incidence rate of iatrogenic ureteral injury is 0.5 to 3% among abdominal surgery. We report a case of ureterouterine fistula after caesarean section. A 38-year-old woman visited our department with a complaint of urinary incontinence without dry time after caesarean section. Several examinations revealed right ureterouterine fistula.
Ureteroneocystostomy using psoas hitch and hysterectomy was performed. We found a firm adhesion and stitches around right lower ureter over the uterus, which lead to an additional hysterectomy. After surgery, urinary incontinence had improved. Following two years after surgery, we observed no urinary incontinence or renal dysfunction.