(Objective) We investigated the clinical features of patients under surveillance for localized renal masses.
(Methods) This study was a retrospective analysis of 15 patients who were diagnosed as having clinically localized renal cell carcinoma and were placed under surveillance and 68 patients who underwent immediate radical operation for renal masses.
(Results) The age at diagnosis in the surveillance group was significantly higher than in the immediate operation group (median, 81 vs. 65 years, respectively, P<0.01). The Charlson Comorbidity Index in the surveillance group was significantly higher than in the immediate operation group (median, 5 vs. 2, respectively, P<0.01) and 10 patients (67%) had complications, which was one of the reasons for surveillance. The median initial tumor size in the surveillance group was 2.5 cm (1.5-10.1). There was no significant difference in the tumor size between the two groups. During a median follow-up of 19 months (6-55) the median tumor growth rate was 0.29 cm per year (-0.19-0.65) in the surveillance group. Of the 15 patients with computed tomography follow-up, four underwent surgical resection of the renal masses after surveillance. The histological diagnosis was clear cell renal cell carcinoma in all four. During follow-up, two patients died of other causes and one patient had bone metastasis but there was no death related to the renal masses in the surveillance group.
(Conclusions) The appropriateness of the surveillance should be considered when we initiate surveillance for patients with renal masses because metastasis was detected in one patient in this study. On the other hand, surveillance may be an acceptable management method for elderly or severely comorbid patients because there were two deaths from other causes in the surveillance group.
(Objective) Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We retrospectively evaluated clinical efficacy and safety of enzalutamide in CRPC.
(Patients and methods) We reviewed clinical records of 73 patients who had received enzalutamide for the CRPC at Showa University and affiliated 7 hospitals. Enzalutamide was given at a dose of 160 mg/day, but some patients were treated at lower dose because of there age or poor performance status. Prostrate-specific antigen (PSA) response, prior docetaxel use and the previously administered agents were evaluated retrospectively.
(Results) The median patients age was 77 years, the median Gleason score was 9 and the median PSA level at baseline was 26.9 ng/ml. The patients who had prior docetaxel use were 29 (39.7%) and the median of total docetaxel dose was 460 mg/body. The median number of total prior treatments (anti-androgens, Estramustine and steroid) was 3. Twenty seven (61.4%) patients with docetaxel-naïve achieved over 50% reduction of PSA level from baseline, but only 7 (24.1%) in patients previously treated with docetaxel. The most common adverse events included fatigue (24.7%), anorexia (24.7%) and the nausea (16.4%). We found a small proportion of responders to enzalutamide experienced a PSA flare.
(Conclusion) Our results of the use of Enzaltamide for CRPC were similar with previous reports. PSA flare was found in some patients with CRPC who responded to enzaltamide. It should be noted that this possible PSA flare phenomenon.
(Purpose) We investigated the outcome of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NeoADT) for high-risk prostate cancer defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline.
(Patients and method) From 2002 to 2013, 70 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PSA ≥20 ng/ml or clinical T stage ≥T3a, Gleason score ≥8) were treated with NeoADT and EBRT. EBRT consisted of three-dimensional conformal or intensity modulated radiotherapy with or without whole-pelvic radiation. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors for bPFS were analyzed by using the Cox proportional hazard model.
(Result) The median age and initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level were 72 years old and 25.2 ng/ml, respectively. 43 patients had PSA level ≥20 ng/ml, 51 patients had clinical stage ≥T3a, 27 patients had Gleason score ≥8. The number of risk factors patients possessed was 1 (RiskN-1) in 31 patients, 2 (RiskN-2) in 27 patients and 3 (RiskN-3) in 12 patients. Median EBRT dose and duration of Neo ADT were 74 Gy and13.0 months, respectively. Whole-pelvic radiation was administered in 7 patients. After median follow-up of 4.8 years, biochemical and clinical failure occurred in 23 and 2 patients, respectively. No patients died of cancer. Five-year/8-year bPFS and OS were 63%/54% and 100%/91%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, three high-risk factor of NCCN guideline (PSA, clinical stage, Gleason score) did not predict outcome after EBRT independently, but RiskN (-1 vs -2, 3, HR 35.35, 95%CI 2.51-498.05, p<0.01) and pre-EBRT PSA (continuous, hazard ratio 1.31, 95%CI 1.01-1.71, p<0.05) were the significant predictors of bPFS. Five-year/8-year bPFS in RiskN-1 group and RiskN-2 or -3 group were 89%/79% and 47%/39%, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events (CTCAE ver4.0-JCOG) occurred in 2 patients.
(Conclusion) Median dose of 74 Gy EBRT with intermediate-term NeoADT was safe and beneficial for high-risk prostate cancer. The number of risk factors and pre-EBRT PSA level were the independent prognostic factors for biochemical progression-free survival.
(Purpose) To date there was no consensus regarding expectant size of stone and time to expulsion in the conservative treatment of ureter stones. The aim of this study was to find the clinical factors associated with stone passage by evaluating the outcome of ureter stones with expectant management in Japanese.
(Materials and methods) A total of 679 ureter stone cases who visited our hospital with acute real colic and/or hematuria between 2009 and 2013, and who had decided to be treated by expectant management with or without medical expulsive therapy were enrolled in this study. All cases were examined size, location and presence of stone, and degree of hydronephrosis with ultrasonography. The examined data plus clinical data such as gender, age, side and body mass index were analyzed to find the factors related to spontaneous passage of ureter stones. Statistical analysis was performed to predict whether the factors were associated with the ureteral stone expulsion or not.
(Results) Accumulated residual stone curve using Kaplan-Meier method showed time to 50%-expulsion as 15.7 days in cases with stone size no more than 6.0 mm and that as 21.8 days in those with greater than 6.0 mm, and time to 50%-expulsion as 28.8 days in cases with upper ureter stone whereas 15.6 days in those with middle or distal ureter stone. Analysis in groups with 1 mm-interval in stone size showed statistical significance only when compared 5-6 mm group with 6-7 mm group in size. Multivariate analysis showed stone size and location as statistically significant and independent factors to predict time to expulsion within 30 days.
(Conclusion) Stone size and location was statistically reconfirmed to be associated with spontaneous passage in expectant management of ureter stones. This study statistically demonstrated the possibility that 6 mm in maximal stone size measured by ultrasonography can be a predictive border. 75% of ureter stones within 6 mm in maximal size measured by ultrasonography may expect to be expelled within 30 days.
(Objectives) We examined the clinical efficacy of dietary manipulation (DM) for female patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) in stable condition who were followed in our hospital.
(Patients and methods) This study included 20 female patients with IC in rather stable condition who were followed at our hospital. In cooperation with the nutrition control team, we created a basic IC diet menu for 1 month (total daily calories, 1,500 kcal; protein, 65 g; fat, 40 g; carbohydrate, 220 g; water, 1,000 ml; salt, 7 g). Data regarding daily food intake and food-related symptoms were collected by detailed interview of each patient conducted by the doctors, nurses, and nutritionists at our hospital. In accordance with the abovementioned nutrition control, we set meal menu to control IC symptoms and advised the patients to reduce the intake of specific food items to the maximum possible extent.
The following food items were removed from or restricted in the diet of patients: tomatoes, tomato products, soy, tofu product (seasoning was acceptable), spices (pepper, curry powder, mustard, horseradish, etc.), excessive potassium, citrus, high-acidity-inducing substances (caffeine, carbonate, and citric acid), etc. We evaluated the following factors to determine the efficacy of this diet menu 3 months after the start of the intervention: O'Leary-Sant symptom index (OSSI), O'Leary-Sant problem index (OSPI), urgency visual analogue scale (UVAS) score, (0, no urgency; 10, severe urgency), bladder or pelvic pain VAS (PVAS) score, (0, no pain; 10, worst possible pain), and numerical patient-reported quality of life (QOL) index (0, highly satisfied; 6, highly dissatisfied).
(Results) OSSI and OSPI improved from 11.7 to 10.1 (p<0.0001), and from 10.7 to 8.8 (p=0.01), respectively. The UVAS score significantly reduced from 6.4 to 4.8, and the PVAS score significantly improved from 6.5 to 4.8 (p<0.0001). The patient-reported QOL index significantly improved from 5.1 to 3.9 (p<0.0001).
(Conclusion) Although repeated notes were taken and patients who were followed up for a long term were consulted on the meal, as appropriate, at the time of visit, DM was found to alleviate the symptoms of IC. DM as a systematic treatment modality for IC should be attempted more aggressively because of its non-invasiveness, without alterations to the other IC treatments.
An adenomatoid tumor is a benign tumor of mesothelial derivation, typically found in the genital track. However, though extremely rare, an adenomatoid tumor can be found in the adrenal gland, making it difficult to clinically and radiologically differentiate it from an adrenocortical tumor or a pheochromocytoma prior to surgery. We encountered a-52-year old man with an adenomatoid tumor in the adrenal gland, who presented with an incidentally discovered left adrenal mass revealed by PET-CT from his regular health examinations. He had been diagnosed with paroxysmal hypertension two years before and was being treated with a hypolipidemic agent. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a left adrenal mass measuring 25 × 15 mm, and the findings were different from the typical adrenocortical adenoma or pheochromocytoma. Although laboratory examinations of his blood samples indicated normal adrenal function, 24-hour urine specimens revealed high levels of 17-OHCS, 17-KS, and catecholamine. Both 131I-MIBG scintigraphy and phentolamine tests showed negative findings. The patient underwent a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. The cut surface of the left adrenal gland weighing 21 g contained a white, solid mass measuring 25 × 15 × 20 mm within the adrenocortical tissue. Histologically, the tumor was composed of small tubules lined by eosinophilic tumor cells. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratins and calretinin, but negative for steroidogenic factor-1. Therefore, based on these findings, we diagnosed this tumor as an adrenal adenomatoid tumor. Histopathologically, the adrenal adenomatoid tumor may be difficult to distinguish from an adrenocortical adenoma, carcinoma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, angiosarcoma, or metastatic adenocarcinoma. Under these conditions, immunohistochemical examination is useful for definite diagnosis.
A 25 year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a left swelling testis. We diagnosed as left testicular tumor by ultrasound sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) showed no metastasis and tumor makers, βHCG, AFP, LDH, were normal. A tumor was removed by left radical high orchiectomy and histological examination revealed large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor. He was given no adjuvant therapy. Neither recurrence nor metastasis has been found for 4 months after the operation.
A 72-year-old man presented with left scrotal swelling. The patient was diagnosed with left testicular hydrocele and underwent the hydrocele aspiration. However, it recurred within a short period. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumor in the epididymis and the patient then underwent left high orchiectomy. The histopathological examination revealed an adenocarcinoma of the epididymis. Ten months after the surgery, the patient has been free of disease.
We report a 25-year-old male with multiple visceral injuries accompanied by right renal pedicle injury and left ureteral disruption treated successfully by left ureterocalicostomy. He was accidentally crushed by a roller for fishing net hoists while working as a fisherman in May 2011. He was emergently transported to Kurobe City Hospital. He was in shock, but recovered with fluid therapy. CT revealed bilateral hemothorax, liver injury, bowel injury, right renal pedicle injury, left renal injury, and inferior vena cava damage. After bilateral chest drainage, emergent surgery was performed. Laparotomy revealed pancreatic injury, liver injury, disruption of the stomach and jejunum, colonic injury, and retroperitoneal hematoma on the right side. Distal pancreatectomy, hepatorrhaphy, left half resection of the colon, subtotal gastrectomy, and colostomy were performed. However, the bleeding of the right lobe of the liver could not be stopped, and gauze packing on the liver surface was performed for damage control. During the operation, right renal pedicle injury was not treated because the pulsation of the retroperitoneal hematoma was not palpable and the hematoma did not enlarge to the left side across the center; furthermore, his general condition was very poor. After the operation, the patient showed anuria, and hemodialysis was performed twice a week. One week after the operation, removal of the gauze was performed under general anesthesia. The gauze was removed from the liver while sprinkling physiological saline, and there was little bleeding. Tachocomb® (CSL Behring, Tokyo, Japan) was placed on the surface of the liver and a drainage tube was indwelled. Twenty-four days postoperatively, CT revealed left hydronephrosis with right nonfunctioning kidney, and percutaneus left nephrostomy was performed. Antegrade and retrograde pyelograms revealed a left ureteral defect of 8 cm in the upper ureter.
The patient was introduced to the Department of Urology of Shinshu University Hospital. Left ureterocalicostomy was performed in January 2012, and the nephrostomy catheter was removed. The temporal colostomy was closed in the Department of Surgery of Kurobe City Hospital in May 2014. He subsequently resumed his normal life.